Document Metadata

Description Ratified treaty # 3: A Treaty Held at the Town of Lancaster, By the Honourable the Lieutenant Governor of the Province, and the Honourable the Commissioners for the Province of Virginia and Maryland, with the Indians of the Six Nations in June, 1744.
Source Van Doren, C. and Boyd, J. P. (Eds.). (1938). Indian Treaties Printed by Benjamin Franklin, 1736–1762. Philadelphia, PA: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 41–79.

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A
TREATY,
Held at the Town of
Lancaſter, in PENNSYLVANIA,
By the HONOURABLE the
Lieutenant-Governor of the PROVINCE,
And the HONOURABLE the
Commiſſioners for the PROVINCES
OF
VIRGINIA and MARYLAND,
WITH THE
INDIANS
OF THE
SIX NATIONS,
In JUNE, 1744.

PHILADELPHIA:
Printed and Sold by B. FRANKLIN, at the New-Printing-Office, near the Market. M,DCC,XLIV.




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A TREATY WITH THE INDIANS OF THE SIX NATIONS.
In the COURT-HOUSE in the Town of Lancaſter, on Friday, the Twenty Second of June, 1744,

PRESENT,

The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Lieut. Governor of the Province of Pennſylvania, and Counties of Newcaſtle, Kent and Suſſex, on Delaware.

Commiſſioners of Virginia
The Honourable Thomas Lee, Eſq;
Colonel William Beverly,

Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Honble Edmund Jennings, Eſq;
Philip Thomas Eſq;
Colonel Robert King,
Colonel Thomas Colville,

The Deputies of the Onandagoes, Senecas, Cayogoes, Oneidas and Tuſcaroraes.

Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

THE Governor and the Commiſſioners took ſome of the Indian Chiefs by the Hand, and, after they had ſeated themſelves, the Governor bid them welcome into the Government; and there being Wine and Punch prepared for them, the Governor and the ſeveral Commiſſioners drank. Health to the Six Nations; and Canaſſatego, Tacbanoontia, and ſome other Chiefs, returned the Compliments, drinking the Healths of [*] Onas,[+] Aſſaragoa, and the Governor of Maryland.

AFTER they were all ſerved with Wine, Punch, Pipes and Tobacco, the Governor told the Indians, that as it was cuſtomary, and indeed neceſſary,

*. Onas, the Governor of Pennſylvania[back]

+. Aſſaragoa, the Governor of Virginia [back]



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they ſhould have ſome Time to reſt after ſo long a Journey, and as he thought three Days would be no more than ſufficient for that Purpoſe, he propoſed to ſpeak to them on Monday next; after which, the honourable Commiſſioners would take their own Time to deliver what they had to ſay.

CANASSATEGO anſwered the Governor: We thank you for giving us Time to reſt; we are come to you, and ſhall leave it intirely to you to appoint the Time when we ſhall meet you again. We likewiſe leave it to the Governor of Maryland, by whoſe Invitation we came here, to appoint a Time when he will pleaſe to mention the Reaſon of his inviting us. As to our Brother Aſſaragoa, we have at this preſent Time nothing to ſay to him; not but we have a great deal to ſay to Aſſaragoa, which muſt be ſaid at one Time or another; but not being ſatisfied whether he or we ſhould begin firſt, we ſhall leave it wholly to our Brother Onas to adjuſt this between us, and to ſay which ſhall begin firſt.

In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, June 25, 1744. A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

The GOVERNOR ſpoke as follows:

Honourable Gentlemen, Commiſſioners for the Governments of Virginia and Maryland, and Brethren, Sachims, or Chiefs of the Indians of the Six Nations:
AT a Treaty, held by me two Years ago, in Behalf of the Government of Pennſylvania, with a Number of the Chiefs of the Indians of the Six Nations, I was deſired by them to write to the Governor of Maryland concerning ſome Lands in the back Parts of that Province, which they claim a Right to from their Conqueſts over the ancient Poſſeſſors, and which have been ſettled by ſome of the Inhabitants of that Government, without their Conſent, or any Purchaſe made from them. It was at that time underſtood that the Claim was upon Maryland only; but it has ſince appeared, by ſome Letters formerly wrote by Mr. Preſident Logan to the late Governor of Maryland, that it related likewiſe to ſome Lands in the back Parts of Virginia. The Governors of thoſe Colonies ſoon manifeſted a truly equitable Diſpoſition to come to any reaſonable Terms with the Six Nations on account of thoſe Lands, and deſired, that for that End a Time and Place might be fixed for a Treaty with them; but before this could be effected, an unfortunate Skir-

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miſh happened in the back Parts of Virginia, between fome of the Militia there, and a Party of the Indian Warriors of the Six Nations, with ſome Loſs on both Sides. Who were the Aggreſſors is not at this time to be diſcuſſed, both Parties having agreed to bury that Affair in Oblivion, and the Government of Virginia having, in Token of the Continuance of their Friendſhip, presented the Six Nations, through my Hands, with Goods to the Value of One Hundred Pounds Sterling. To prevent further Hoſtilities, and to heal this Breach, I had, before the Preſent was given, made a Tender of my good Offices; which both Parties accepted, and conſented, on my Inſtances, to lay down their Arms: Since which the Faith pledged to me has been mutually preſerved, and a Time and Place has been agreed upon, through my Intervention, for accommodating all Differences, and for ſettling a firm Peace, Union and Friendſhip, as well between the Government of Virginia as that of Maryland, and the Indians of the Six Nations [*]. The honourable the Commiſſioners for theſe two Governments, and the Deputies of the Six Nations, are now met at the Place appointed for the Treaty. It only remains therefore for me to ſay, That if my further good Offices ſhall be thought uſeful for the Accompliſhment of this Work, you may rely moſt aſſuredly upon them.

BUT I hope, honourable Gentlemen Commiſſioners, it will not be taken amiſs if I go a little further, and briefly repreſent to you, how eſpecially neceſſary it is at this Juncture, for his Majeſty's Service, and the Good of all his Colonies in this Part of his Dominions, that Peace and Friendſhip is eſtabliſhed between your Governments and the Indians of the Six Nations.

THESE Indians, by their Situation, are a Frontier to ſome of them; and, from thence, if Friends, are capable of defending their Settlements; if Enemies, of making cruel Ravages upon them; if Neuters, they may deny the French a Paſſage through their Country, and give us timely Notice of their Deſigns. Theſe are but ſome of the Motives for cultivating a good Underſtanding with them; but from hence the Diſadvantages of a Rupture are abundantly evident. Every Advantage you gain over them in War will be a weakening of the Barrier of thoſe Colonies, and conſequently be, in effect, Victories over yourſelves and your Fellow Subjects. Some Allowances for their Prejudices and Paſſions, and a Preſent now and then for the Relief of their Neceſſities, which have, in ſome Meaſure, been brought upon them by their Intercourſe with us, and by our yearly extending our Settlements, will probably tie them more cloſely to the Britifh Intereſt. This has been the Method of New-York and Pennſylvania, and will not put you to ſo much Expence in twenty Years, as the carrying on a War againſt them will do in one. The French very well know the Importance of theſe Nations to us, and will not fail by Preſents, and their other uſual Arts, to take Advantage of any Miſunderſtandings we may have with them[✝]. But I will detain you, Gentlemen, no longer. Your own ſuperior Knowledge will ſuggeſt to you more than I can ſay on this Subject.

*. This was allowed, at a Conference had by the Governor with the Commiſſioners, to be a juſt State of the Tranſactions preceding the Treaty. [back]

✝. The two preceding Paragraphs were allowed by the Commiſſioners of Virginia, whilſt they were at Philadephia, to be very proper to be ſpoken by the Governor of Pennſylvania at the Opening of the Treaty; but taking up an Opinion, from what paſſed at the firſt friendly Interview with the Indians, that they would not make any Claim upon Lands within the Government of Virginia, the Governor conſented to decline ſpeaking them in the Presence of the Indians[back]



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Friends and Brethern, Sachims, or Chiefs of the Indians of the Six Nations:
THESE, your Brethern of Virginia and Maryland, are come to enlarge the Fire, which was almoſt gone out, and to make it burn clearer; to brighten the Chain which had contracted ſome Ruſt, and to renew their Friendſhip with you; which it is their Deſire may laſt ſo long as the Sun, the Moon and the Stars, ſhall give Light. Their Powers are derived from the Great King of ENGLAND, your Father; and whatever Concluſions they ſhall come to with you, will be as firm and binding as if the Governors of theſe Provinces were themſelves here. I am your Brother, and, which is more, I am your true Friend. As you know, from Experience, that I am ſo, I will now give you a few Words of Advice. Receive theſe your Brethern with open Arms; unite yourſelves to them in the Covenant Chain, and be you with them as one Body, and one Soul. I make no doubt but the Governor of Canada has been taking Pains to widen the Breach between theſe your Brethren of Virginia and you; but as you cannot have forgot the Hatred the French have always borne to your Nations, and how kindly, on the contrary, you have been treated, and how faithfully you have been protected by the Great King of ENGLAND and his Subjects, you will not be at a Loſs to ſee into the Deſigns of that Governor. He wants to divide you from us, in order the more eaſily to deſtroy you, which he will moſt certainly do, if you ſuffer yourſelves to be deluded by him.

AS to what relates to the Friendſhip eſtablished between the Government of Pennſylvania and your Nations, I will take another Day to ſpeak to you upon it.

To enforce what had been ſaid, the GOVERNOR laid down a Belt of Wampum; upon which the Indians gave the [*] Yo- hah

AFTER a ſhort Pauſe, the Governor ordered the Interpreter to tell the Indians, that as they had greatly exceeded their appointed Time for meeting the Commiſſioners, he recommended to them to uſe all the Expedition poſſible in giving their Anſwer to what had been ſaid, that they might forthwith proceed to treat with the reſpective Commiſſioners on the Buſineſs they came about.

THEN Canaſſatego repeated to the Interpreter the Subſtance of what the Governor had ſpoke, in order to know if he had underſtood him right (a Method generally made uſe of by the Indians) and when the Interpreter told him he had taken the true Senſe, Canaſſatego proceeded to return the Thanks of the Six Nations for the GOVERNOR's kind Advice, promiſing to follow it as far as lay in their Power; but as it was their Cuſtom when a Belt was given to return another, they would take Time till the Afternoon to provide one, and would then give their Anſwer.

*. The Yo-hah denotes Approbation, being a loud Shout or Cry, conſiſting of a few Notes pronounced by all the Indians in a very muſical Manner, in the Nature of our Huzza's. [back]



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In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, June 25, 1744. P. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

Canaſſatego's Anſwer to the Governor's Speech delivered in the Morning.

Brother Onas,
YOU ſpoke in the Preſence of Aſſaragoa and the Governor of Maryland to us, adviſing us to receive them as our Brethren, and to unite with them in the Covenant Chain as one Body, and one Soul. We have always conſidered them as our Brethren, and, as ſuch, ſhall be willing to brighten the Chain of Friendſhip with them; but ſince there are ſome Diſputes between reſpecting the Lands poſſeſſed by them, which formerly belonged to us, we, according to our Cuſtom, propoſe to have thoſe Differences firſt adjuſted, and then we ſhall proceed to confirm the Friendſhip ſubſiſting between us, which will meet with no Obſtruction after theſe Matters are ſettled.

Here they preſented the GOVERNOR with a Belt of Wampum, in return for the Belt given them in the Morning by the GOVERNOR; and the Interpreter was ordered to return the Yo-hah.

Then the GOVERNOR, in Reply, ſpoke as follows:
I receive your Belt with great Kindneſs and Affection; and as to what relates to the Governments of Virginia and Maryland, the honourable Commiſſioners, now preſent, are ready to treat with you. I ſhall only add, that the Goods for the Hundred Pounds Sterling, put into my Hands by the Governor of Virginia, as a Token of his good Diſpoſitions to preſerve Friendſhip with you, are now in Town, and ready to be delivered, in conſequence of what was told you by Conrad Weiſer when he was laſt at Onandago,

THEN the Governor, turning to the Commiſſioners of Virginia and Maryland, ſaid, Gentlemen, I have now finiſhed what was incumbent upon me to ſay by way of Introduction to the Indians; and as you have a full Authority from your reſpective Governments to treat with them, I ſhall leave the reſt intirely to you, and either ſtay or withdraw, as you ſhall think moſt for your Service.


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THE Commiſſioners ſaid, They were all of Opinion, it would be for their Advantage that the Governor ſhould ſtay with them; and therefore they unanimouſly deſired he would favour them with the Continuance of his Preſence whilſt they ſhould be in Treaty with the Indians: Which his Honour ſaid he would at their Inſtance very readily do, believing it might expedite their Buſineſs, and prevent any Jealouſy the Indians might conceive at his withdrawing.

The Commiſſioners of Maryland ordered the Interpreter to acquaint the Indians that the Governor of Maryland was going to ſpeak to them, and then ſpoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren of the united Six Nations,
WE, who are deputed from the Government of Maryland by a Commiſſion under the Great Seal of that Province, now in our Hands (and which will be interpreted to you) bid you welcome; and in Token that we are very glad to ſee you here as Brethren, we give you this String of Wampum.

Upon which the Indians gave the Yo-hah.

WHEN the Governor of Maryland received the firſt notice, about ſeven Years ago, of your Claim to ſome Lands in that Province, he thought our good Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations had little Reaſon to complain of any Injury from Maryland, and that they would be ſo well convinced thereof, on farther Deliberation, as he ſhould hear no more of it; but you ſpoke of that Matter again to the Governor of Pennſylvania, about two Years ſince, as if you deſigned to terrify us.

IT was very inconſiderately ſaid by you, that you would do yourſelves Juſtice, by going to take Payment yourſelves: Such an Attempt would have intirely diſſolved the Chain of Friendſhip ſubſiſting, not only between us, but perhaps the other Engliſh and you.

WE aſſure you, our People, who are numerous, courageous, and have Arms ready in their Hands, will not ſuffer themſelves to be hurt in their Lives and Eſtates.

BUT, however, the old and wiſe People of Maryland immediately met in Council, and upon conſidering very coolly your raſh Expreſſions, agreed to invite their Brethren, the Six Nations, to this Place, that they might learn of them what Right they have to the Land in Maryland, and, if they had any, to make them ſome reaſonable Compenſation for it; therefore the Governor of Maryland has ſent us to meet and treat with you about this Affair, and the brightening and ſtrengthening the Chain which hath long ſubſiſted between us. And as an Earneſt of our Sincerity and Good-will towards you, we preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.
On which the Indians gave the Yo-hah.

OUR Great King of ENGLAND, and his Subjects, have always poſſeſſed the Province of Maryland free and undiſturbed from any Claim of the Six Nations for above one hundred Years paſt, and your not ſaying any thing

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to us before, convinces us you thought you had no Pretence to any Lands in Maryland; nor can we yet find out to what Lands, or under what Title, you make your Claim: For the Saſquahannah Indians, by a Treaty above ninety Years ſince (which is on the Table, and will be interpreted to you) give, and yield to the Engliſh Nation, their Heirs and Aſſigns for ever, the greateſt Part (if not all) of the Lands we poſſeſs, from Patuxent River, on the Weſtern, as well as from Choptank River, on the Eaſtern Side of the Great Bay of Cheſſapeak. And, near Sixty Years ago, you acknowledged to the Governor of New-York at Albany, "That you had given your Lands, and ſubmitted yourſelves to the King of England."

WE are that Great King's Subjects, and we poſſeſs and enjoy the Province of Maryland by virtue of his Right and Sovereignty thereto; why, then, will you ſtir up any Quarrel between you and ourſelves, who are as one Man, under the Protection of that Great King?

WE need not put you in mind of the Treaty (which we ſuppoſe you have had from your Fathers) made with the Province of Maryland near Seventy Years ago, and renewed and confirmed twice ſince that time.

BY theſe Treaties we became Brethren; we have always lived as ſuch, and hope always to continue ſo.

WE have this further to ſay, that altho' we are not ſatisfied of the Juſtice of your Claim to any Lands in Maryland, yet we are deſirous of ſhewing our Brotherly Kindneſs and Affection, and to prevent (by any reaſonable Way) every Miſunderſtanding between the Province of Maryland and you our Brethren of the Six Nations.

FOR this Purpoſe we have brought hither a Quantity of Goods for our Brethren the Six Nations, and which will be delivered you as ſoon as we ſhall have received your Anſwer, and made ſo bright and large a Fire as may burn pure and clear whilſt the Sun and Moon ſhall ſhine.

WE have now freely and openly laid our Boſoms bare to you; and that you may be the better confirmed of the Truth of our Hearts, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

After a little Time Canaſſatego ſpoke as follows:

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,
WE have heard what you have ſaid to us; and, as you have gone back to old Times, we cannot give you an Anſwer now, but ſhall take what you have ſaid into Conſideration, and return you our Anſwer ſome Time to Morrow. He then ſat down, and after ſome Time he ſpoke again.

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,
IF you have made any Enquiry into Indian Affairs, you will know, that we have always had our Guns, Hatchets and Kettles, mended when we came to ſee our Brethren. Brother Onas, and the Governor of York always do this for us; and we give you this early Notice, that we may not thereby be

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delayed, being deſirous, as well as you, to give all poſſible Diſpatch to the Buſineſs to be tranſacted between us.

THE Commiſſioners of Virginia and Maryland ſaid, ſince it was cuſtomary, they would give Orders to have every Thing belonging to them mended that ſhould want it.

In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, June 26, 1744, P.M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſoners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

CANASSATEGO ſpoke as follows:

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,
WHEN you invited us to kindle a Council Fire with you, Conedogwainet was the Place agreed upon; but afterwards you, by Brother Onas, upon ſecond Thoughts, conſidering that it would be difficult to get Proviſions and other Accommodations where there were but few Houſes or Inhabitants, deſired we would meet our Brethren at Lancaſter, and at his Inſtances we very readily agreed to meet you here, and are glad of the Change; for we have found Plenty of every thing; and as Yeſterday you bid us welcome, and told us you were glad to ſee us, we likewiſe aſſure you we are as glad to ſee you; and, in Token of our Satisfaction, we preſent you with this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,
YOU tell us, that when about Seven Years ago you heard, by our Brother Onas, of our Claim to ſome Lands in your Province, you took no Notice of it, believing, as you ſay, that when we ſhould come to reconſider that Matter, we ſhould find that we had no Right to make any Complaint of the Governor of Maryland, and would drop our Demand. And that when about two Years ago we mentioned it again to our Brother Onas, you ſay we did it in ſuch Terms as looked like a Deſign to terrify you; and you tell us further, that we muſt be beſide ourſelves, in uſing ſuch a raſh Expreſſion as to tell you, We know how to do ourſelves Juſtice if you ſtill refuſe. It is true we did ſay ſo, but without any ill Deſign; for we muſt inform you, that when we firſt deſired our Brother Onas to uſe his Influence with you to procure us Satisfaction for our Lands, we, at the ſame time, deſired him, in caſe you should disregard our Demand, to write to the Great King beyond the Seas, who would own us for his Children as well as you, to compel you

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to do us Juſtice: And, two Years ago, when we found that you had paid no Regard to our juſt Demand, nor that Brother Onas had convey'd our Complaint to the Great King over the Seas, we were reſolved to uſe ſuch Expreſſions as would make the greateſt Impreſſions on your Minds, and we find it had its Effect; for you tell us, "That your wiſe Men held a Council together, and agreed to invite us, and to enquire of our Right to any of your Lands, and if it ſhould be found that we had a Right, we were to have a Compenſation made for them: And likewiſe you tell us, that our Brother, the Governor of Maryland, by the Advice of there wiſe Men, has ſent you to brighten the Chain, and to aſſure us of his Willingneſs to remove whatever impedes a good Uunderſtanding between us." This ſhews that your wiſe Men underſtood our Expreſſions in their true Senſe. We had no Deſign to terrify you, but to put you on doing us the Juſtice you had ſo long delayed. Your wiſe Men have done well and as there is no Obſtacle to a good Underſtanding between us, except this Affair of our Land, we, on our Parts, do give you the ſtrongeſt Aſſurances of our good Diſpoſitions towards you, and that we are as deſirous as you to brighten the Chain, and to put away all Hindrances to a perfect good Underſtanding; and, in Token of our Sincerity, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received, and the Interpreter ordered to give the Yo-hah.

Brother, the Governor of Maryland,
WHEN you mentioned the Affair of the Land Yeſterday, you went back to old Times, and told us, you had been in Poſſeſſion of the Province of Maryland above One Hundred Years; but what is One Hundred Years in Compariſon of the Length of Time ſince our Claim began ſince we came out of this Ground? For we muſt tell you, that long before One Hundred Years our Anceſtors came out of this very Ground, and their Children have remained here ever ſince. You came out of the Ground in a Country that lies beyond the Seas, there you may have a juſt Claim, but here you muſt allow us to be your elder Brethren, and the Lands to belong to us long before you knew any thing of them. It is true, that above One Hundred Years ago the Dutch came here in a Ship, and brought with them ſeveral Goods; ſuch as Awls, Knives, Hatchets, Guns, and many other Particulars, which they gave us; and when they had taught us how to uſe their Things, and we ſaw what ſort of People they were, we were ſo well pleaſed with them, that we tied their Ship to the Buſhes on the Shore; and afterwards, liking them ſtill better the longer they ſtaid with us, and thinking the Buſhes too tender, we removed the Rope, and tied it to the Trees; and as the Trees were liable to be blown down by high Winds, or to decay of themſelves, we, from the Affection we bore them, again removed the Rope, and tied it to a ſtrong and big Rock [here the Interpreter ſaid, They mean the Oneido Country] and not content with this, for its further Security we removed the Rope to the big Mountain [here the Interpreter jays they mean the Onandago Country] and there we tied it very faſt, and rowll'd Wampum about it; and, to make it ſtill more ſecure, we ſtood upon the Wampum, and ſat down upon it, to defend it, and to prevent any Hurt coming to it, and did our beſt Endeavours that it might remain uninjured for ever. During all this Time the New-comers, the Dutch, acknowledged our Right to the Lands, and ſollicited us, from Time to Time, to grant them Parts of our Country, and to enter into League and Covenant with us, and to become one People with us.



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AFTER this the Engliſh came into the Country, and, as we were told, became one People with the Dutch. About two Years after the Arrival of the Engliſh, an Engliſh Governor came to Albany, and finding what great Friendſhip ſubſiſted between us and the Dutch, he approved it mightily, and deſired to make as ſtrong a League, and to be upon as good Terms with us as the Dutch were, with whom he was united, and to become one People with us: And by his further Care in looking into what had paired between us, he found that the Rope which tied the Ship to the great Mountain was only faſtened with Wampum, which was liable to break and rot, and to periſh in a Courſe of Years; he therefore told us, he would give us a Silver Chain, which would be much ſtronger, and would laſt for ever. This we accepted, and faſtened the Ship with it, and it has laſted ever ſince. Indeed we have had ſome ſmall Differences with the Engliſh, and, during theſe Miſunderſtanding, ſome of their young Men would, by way of Reproach, be every now and then telling us, that we ſhould have pariſhed if they had not come into the Country and furniſhed us with Strowds and Hatchets, and Guns, and other Things neceſſary for the Support of Life; but we always gave them to underſtand that they were miſtaken, that we lived before they came amongſt us, and as well, or better, if we may believe what our Forefathers have told us. We had then Room enough, and Plenty of Deer, which was eaſily caught; and tho' we had not Knives, Hatchets, or Guns, ſuch as we have now, yet we had Knives of Stone, and Hatchets of Stone, and Bows and Arrows, and thoſe ſerved our Uſes as well then as the Engliſh ones do now. We are now ſtraitened, and ſometimes in want of Deer, and liable to many other Inconveniencies ſince the Engliſh came among us, and particularly from that Pen-and-Ink Work that is going on at the Table (pointing to the Secretary) and we will give you an Inſtance of this. Our Brother Onas, a great while ago, came to Albany to buy the Saſquahannah Lands of us, but our Brother, the Governor of New-York, who, as we ſuppoſe, had not a good Underſtanding with our Brother Onas, adviſed us not to ſell him any Land, for he would make an ill Uſe of it; and, pretending to be our good Friend, he adviſed us, in order to prevent Onas's, or any other Perſon's impoſing upon us, and that we might always have our Land when we should want it, to put it into his Hands; and told us, he would keep it for our life, and never open his Hands, but keep them cloſe ſhut, and not part with any of it, but at our Requeſt. Accordingly we truſted him, and put our Land into his Hands, and charged him to keep it ſafe for our Uſe; but, ſome Time after, he went to England, and carried our Land with him, and there ſold it to our Brother Onas for a large Sum of Money; and when, at the Inſtance of our Brother Onas, we were minded to ſell him ſome Lands, he told us, we had ſold the Saſquahannah Lands already to the Governor of New-York, and that he had bought them from him in England; tho', when he came to underſtand how the Governor of New-York had deceived us, he very generously paid us for our Lands over again.

THO' we mention this Inſtance of an Impoſition put upon us by the Governor of New-York, yet we muſt do the Engliſh the Justice to ſay, we have had their hearty Aſſiſtances in our Wars with the French, who were no ſooner arrived amongst us than they began to render us uneaſy, and to provoke us to War, and we have had ſeveral Wars with them; during all which we coſtantly received Aſſiſtance from the Engliſh, and,

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by their Means, we have always been able to keep up our Heads againſt their Attacks.

WE now come nearer home. We have had your Deeds interpreted to us, and we acknowledge them to be good and valid, and that the Coneſtogoe or Saſquahannah Indians had a Right to ſell thoſe Lands to you, for they were then theirs; but ſince that Time we have conquered them, and their Country now belongs to us, and the Lands we demanded Satisfaction for are no Part of the Lands comprized in thoſe Deeds; they are the [*] Cohongorontas Lands; thoſe, we are ſure, you have not poſſeſſed One Hundred Years, no, nor above Ten Years, and we made our Demands ſo ſoon as we knew your People were ſettled in thoſe Parts. Theſe have never been ſold, but remain ſtill; to be diſpoſed of; and we are well pleaſed to hear you are provided with Goods, and do aſſure you of our Willingneſs to treat with you for thoſe unpurchaſed Lands; in Confirmation whereof, we preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremonies.

CANASSATEGO added, that as the three Governors of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennſylvania, had divided the Lands among them, they could not, for this Reaſon, tell how much each had got, nor were they concerned about it, ſo that they were paid by all the Governors for the ſeveral Parts each poſſeſſed, and this they left to their Honour and Juſtice.

In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſster, June 27 1744, A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

The Commiſſioners of Virginia ordered the Interpreter to let the Indians know the Governor of Virginia was going to ſpeak to them, and then they ſpoke as follows:

Satchims and Warriors of the Six United Nations, our Friends and Brethren,
AT our Deſine the Governor of Pennſylvania invited you to this Conncil Fire; we have waited a long Time for you, but now you are come, you are heartily welcome; we are very glad to ſee you; we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with their uſual Approbation;

*. Cabongorontas, i. e. Potomac  [back]



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Brethren,
IN the Year 1736, four of your Sachims wrote a Letter to James Logan, Eſq; then Preſident of Pennſylvania, to let the Governor of Virginia know that you expected ſome Conſideration for Lands in the Occupation of ſome of the People of Virginia. Upon ſeeing a Copy of this Letter, the Governor, with the Council of Virginia, took ſome Time to conſider of it. They found, on looking into the old Treaties, that you had given up your Lands to the Great King, who has had Poſſeſſion of Virginia above One Hundred and Sixty Years, and under that Great King the Inhabitants of Virginia hold their Land, ſo they thought there might be ſome Miſtake.

WHEREFORE they deſired the Governor of New-York to enquire of you about it. He ſent his Interpreter to you in May, 1743, who laid this before you at a Council held at Onandago, to which you anſwer, "That if you had any Demand or Pretenſions on the Governor of Virginia any way, you would have made it known to the Governor of New-York" This correſponds with what you have ſaid to Governor Thomas, in the Treaty made with him at Philadelphia in July, 1742; for then you only make your Claim to Lands in the Government of Maryland.

WE are ſo well pleaſed with this good Faith of you our Brethren of the Six Nations, and your Regard to the Treaties made with Virginia, that we are ready to hear you on the Subject of your Meſſage eight Years ſince.

TELL us what Nations of Indians you conquered any Lands from in Virginia, how long it is ſince, and what Poſſeſſion you have had; and if it does appear, that there is any Land on the Borders of Virginia that the Six Nations have a Right to, we are willing to make you Satisfaction.

Then laid down a String of Wampum, which was accepted with the uſual Ceremony, and then added,

WE have a Cheſt of new Goods, and the Key is in our Pockets. You are our Brethren; the Great King is our common Father, and we will live with you, as Children ought to do, in Peace and Love.

WE will brighten the Chain, and ſtrengthen the Union between us; ſo that we ſhall never be divided, but remain Friends and Brethren as long as the Sun gives Light; in Confirmation whereof, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

TACHANOONTIA replied:

Brother Aſſaragoa,
YOU have made a good Speech to us, which is very agreeable, and for which we return you our Thanks. We ſhall be able to give you an Anſwer to every Part of it ſome Time this Afternoon, and we will let you know when we are ready.


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In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, June 27, 1744, P.M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

TACHANOONTIA ſpoke as follows:

Brother Aſſaragoa,
SINCE you have joined with the Governor of Maryland and Brother Onas in kindling this Fire, we gladly acknowledge the Pleaſure we have in ſeeing you here, and obſerving your good Diſpoſitions as well to confirm the Treaties of Friendſhip, as to enter into further Contracts about Land with us; and, in Token of our Satisfaction, we preſent you with this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremonies.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
IN your ſpeech this Morning you were pleaſsed to ſay we had wrote a Letter to James Logan, about ſeven Years ago, to demand a Conſideration for our Lands in the Poſſeſſion of ſome of the Virginians; that you held them under the Great King for upwards of One Hundred and Sixty Years, and that we had already given up our Right; and that therefore you had deſired the Governor of New-York to ſend his Interpreter to us laſt Year to Onandago, which he did; and, as you ſay, we in Council at Onandago did declare, that we had no Demand upon you for Lands, and that if we had any Pretenſions, we ſhould have made them known to the Governor of New-York; and likewiſe you deſire to know if we have any Right to the Virginia Lands, and that we will make ſuch Right appear, and tell you what Nations of Indians we conquered thoſe Lands from.

NOW we anſwer, We have the Right of Conqueſt, a Right too dearly purchaſed, and which coſt us too much Blood, to give up without any Reaſon at all, as you ſay we have done at Albany; but we ſhould be obliged to you, if you would let us ſee the Letter, and inform us who was the Interpreter, and whoſe Names are put to that Letter; for as the whole Tranſaction cannot be above a Year's ſtanding, it muſt be freſh in every Body's Memory, and ſome of our Council would eaſily remember it; but we aſſure you, and are well able to prove, that neither we, nor any Part of us, have ever relinquiſhed our Right, or ever gave ſuch an Anſwer as you ſay is mentioned in your Letter. Could we, ſo few Years ago, make a formal Demand, by James Logan, and not be ſenſible of our Right? And hath any thing happened ſince that Time to make us leſs ſenſible? No; and as this Matter can be eaſily cleared up, we are anxious it ſhould be done; for we are

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are poſitive no ſuch thing was ever mentioned to us at Onondaga, nor any where elſe. All the World knows we conquered the ſeveral Nations living on Saſquahanna, Cohongoronta, and on the Back of the Great Mountains In Virginia; the Conoy-uch-ſuch-roona, Coch-now-was-roonan, Toboa-irough-roonan, and Connutſkin-ough-roonaw feel the Effects of our Conqueſts, being now a Part of our Nations, and their Lands at our Diſpoſal. We know very well, it hath often been ſaid by the Virginians, that the Great King of ENGLAND, and the People of that Colony, conquered the Indians who lived there, but it is not true. We will allow they have conquered the Sachda-gughroonaw, and drove back the Tuſcarroraws, and that they have, on that Account, a Right to ſome Part of Virginia; but as to what lies beyond the Mountains, we conquered the Nations reſiding there, and that Land, if the Virginians ever get a good Right to it, it muſt be by us; and in Teſtimony of the Truth of our Anſwer to this Part of your Speech, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
WE have given you a full Anſwer to the firſt Part of your Speech, which we hope will be ſatisfactory. We are glad to hear you have brought with you a big Cheſt of new Goods, and that you have the Key in your Pockets. We do not doubt but we ſhall have a good Underſtanding in all Points, and come to an Agreement with you.

WE ſhall open all our Hearts to you, that you may know every thing in them; we will hide nothing from you; and we hope, if there be any thing ſtill remaining in your Breaſt that may occasion any Diſpute between us, you will take the Opportunity to unboſom your Hearts, and lay them open to us, that henceforth there may be no Dirt, nor any other Obſtacle in the Road between us; and in Token of our hearty Wiſhes to bring about ſo good an Harmony, we preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
WE muſt now tell you what Mountains we mean that we ſay are the Boundaries between you and us. You may remember, that about twenty Years ago you had a Treaty with us at Albany, when you took a Belt of Wampum, and made a Fence with it on the Middle of the Hill, and told us, that if any of the Warriors of the Six Nations came on your Side of the Middle of the Hill, you would hang them; and you gave us Liberty to do the ſame with any of your People who should be found on our Side of the Middle of the Hill. This is the Hill we mean, and we deſire that Treaty may be now confirmed. After we left Albany, we brought our Road a great deal more to the Weſt, that we might comply with your Propoſal; but, tho' it was of your own making, your People never obſerved it, but came and lived on our Side of the Hill, which we don't blame you for, as you live at a great Diſtance, near the Seas, and cannot be thought to know what your People do in the Back-parts: And on their ſettling, contrary to your own Propoſal, on our new Road, it fell out that our Warriors did ſome Hurt to your People's Cattle, of which a Complaint was made, and tranſmitted to us by our Brother Onas; and we, at his Requeſt, altered the Road again, and brought it to the Foot of the Great Mountain, where it now is; and it is

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is impoſſible for us to remove it any further to the Weſt, thoſe Parts of the Country being abſolutely impaſſable by either Man or Beaſt.

WE had not been long in the Uſe of this new Road before your People came, like Flocks of Birds, and ſat down on both Sides of it, and yet we never made a Complaint to you, tho' you muſt be ſenſible thoſe Things muſt have been done by your People in manifeſt Breach of your own Propoſal made at Albany; and therefore, as we are now opening our Hearts to you, we cannot avoid complaining, and deſire all theſe Affairs may be ſettled, and that you may be ſtronger induced to do us Juſtice for what is paſt, and to come to a thorough Settlement for the future, we, in the Preſence of the Governor of Maryland, and Brother Onas, preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was Received with the uſual Ceremony.

Then Tachanoontia added:

HE forgot to ſay, that the Affair of the Road muſt be looked upon as a Preliminary to be ſettled before the Grant of Lands; and that either the Virginia People muſt be obliged to remove more Eaſterly, or, if they are permitted to ſtay, that our Warriors, marching that Way to the Southward, ſhall go Sharers with them in what they plant.

In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, June 28, 1744. A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

The GOVERNOR ſpoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations,
I Am always ſorry when any thing happens that may create the leaſt Uneaſineſs between us; but as we are mutually engaged to keep the Road between us dear and open, and to remove every Obſtruction that may lie in the Way, I muſt inform you, that three of the Delaware Indians lately murdered John Armſtrong, an Indian Trader, and his two Men, in a moſt barbarous Manner, as he was travelling to Allegheny, and ſtole his Goods of a considerable Value. Shick Calamy, and the Indians ſettled at Shamokin, did well; they ſeized two of the Murderers, and ſent them down to our Settlements; but the Indians, who had the Charge of them, afterwards ſuffered one of them to eſcape, on a Pretence that he was not concerned in the bloody Deed; the other is now in Philadelphia Goal, By our Law all the Acceſſaries

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to a Murder are to be tried, and put to Death, as well as the Perſon who gave the deadly Wound. If they conſented to it, encouraged it, or any ways aſſiſted in it, they are to be put to Death, and it is juſt it ſhould be ſo. If, upon Trial, the Perſons preſent at the Murder are found not to have done any of theſe Things, they are ſet at Liberty. Two of our People were, not many Years ago, publickly put to Death for killing two Indians; we therefore expect you will take the moſt effectual Meaſures to ſeize and deliver up to us the other two Indians preſent at theſe Murders, to be tried with the Principal now in Cuſtody. If it ſhall appear, upon their Trial, that they were not adviſing, or any way aſſiſting in this horrid Fact, they will be acquitted, and ſent home to their Towns. And that you may be ſatisfied no Injuſtice will be done to them, I do now invite you to depute three or four Indians to be preſent at their Trials. I do likewiſe expect that you will order ſtrict Search to be made for the Remainder of the ſtolen Goods, that they may be reſtored to the Wife and Children of the Deceaſed. That what I have laid may have its due Weight with you, I give you this String of Wampum.

Which was accepted with the Yo-hah.

THE Governor afterwards ordered the Interpreter to tell them, he expected a very full Anſwer from them, and that they might take their own Time to give it; for he did not deſire to interfere with the Buſineſs of Virginia and Maryland.

THEY ſaid they would take it into Conſideration, and give a full Anſwer.

THEN the Commiſſioners of Virginia let them know, by the Interpreter, that they would ſpeak to them in the Afternoon.

In the COURT-HOUSE Chamber at Lancaſter, June 28, 1744, P. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

The Commiſſioners deſired the Interpreter to tell the Indians they were going to ſpeak to them. Mr. Weiſer acquainted them herewith. After which the ſaid Commiſſioners ſpoke as follows:

Our good Friends and Brethren, the Six united Nations,
WE have conſidered what you ſaid concerning your Title to ſome Lands now in our Province, and alſo of the Place where they lie. Altho' we cannot admit your Right, yet we are ſo reſolved to live in Brotherly Love and Affection with the Six Nations, that upon your giving us a Releaſe in Writing of all your Claim to any Lands in Maryland, we ſhall make you a Compenſation to the Value of Three Hundred Pounds Currency, to the

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Payment of Part whereof we have brought ſome Goods, and ſhall make up the reſt in what Manner you think fit.

AS we intend to ſay ſomething to you about our Chain of Friendſhip after this Affair of the Land is ſettled, we deſire you will now examine the Goods, and make an End of this Matter.

WE will not omit acquainting our good Friends the Six Nations, that notwithſtanding we are likely to come to an Agreement about your Claim of Lands, yet your Brethren of Maryland look on you to be as one Soul and one Body with themſelves; and as a broad Road will be made between us we ſhall always be deſirous of keeping it clear, that we may, from Time to Time, take care that the Links of our Friendſhip be not ruſted. In Teſtimony that our Words and our Hearts agree, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

On preſenting of which the Indians gave the uſual Cry of Approbation,

MR. Weiſer acquainted the Indians, they might now look over the ſeveral Goods placed on a Table in the Chamber for that Purpoſe; and the honourable Commiſſioners bid him tell them, if they diſliked any of the Goods, or, if they were damaged, the Commiſſioners would put a leſs Price on ſuch as were either disliked or damnified.

THE Indians having viewed and examined the Goods, and ſeeming diſſatisfied at the Price and Worth of them, required Time to go down into the Court-Houſe, in order for a Conſultation to be had by the Chiefs of them concerning the ſaid Goods, and likewiſe that the Interpreter might retire with them, which he did. Accordingly they went down into the Conrt-Houſe, and ſoon after returned again into the Chamber.

MR. Weiſer ſat down among the Indians, and diſcourſed them about the Goods, and in ſome ſhort Time after they choſe the following from among the others, and the Price agreed to be given for them by the Six Nations was, viz.

 L, s. d.
Four Pieces of Strowds, at 7 L. - - -  28 00 00
Two Pieces Ditto, 5 L. - - - -  10 00 00
Two Hundred Shirts, - - - -  63 12 00
Three Pieces Half-Thicks, - - - -  11 00 00
Three Pieces Duffle Blankets, at 7 L. - - -  21 00 00
One Piece Ditto, - - - -   6 10 00
Forty Seven Guns, at 1 L. 6 s. - - -  61  2 00
One Pound Vermillion, - - - -  00 18 00
One Thouſand Flints, - - - -  00 18 00
Four Dozen Jews Harps, - - - -  00 14 00
One Dozen Boxes, - - -  00  1 00
One Hundred Two Quarters Bar-Lead, - -   3 00 00
Two Quarters Shot,   1 00 00
Two Half-Barrels of Gun-Powder, - -  13 00 00
L.
220 15 00
Pennſylvania Currency.


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WHEN the Indians had agreed to take theſe Goods at the Rates above ſpecified, they informed the Interpreter, that they would give an Anſwer to the Speech made to them this Morning by the honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland, but did not expreſs the Time when ſuch Anſwer ſhould be made. At 12 o' Clock the Commiſſioners departed the Chamber.

In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, June 28, 1744, P. M.
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

The Commiſſioners of Virginia deſired the Interpreter to let the Indians know that their Brother Aſſaragoa was now going to give his Reply to their Anſwer to his firſt Speech, delivered them the Day before in the Forenoon.

Sachims and Warriors of the united Six Nations,
WE are now come to anſwer what you ſaid to us Yeſterday, ſince what we ſaid to you before on the Part of the Great King, our Father, has not been ſatisfactory. You have gone into old Times, and ſo muſt we. It is true that the Great King holds Virginia by Right of Conqueſt, and the Bounds of that Conqueſt to the Weſtward is the Great Sea.

IF the Six Nations have made any Conqueſt over Indians that may at any Time have lived on the Weſt-ſide of the Great Mountains of Virginia, yet they never poſſeſſed any Lands there that we have ever heard of. That Part was altogether deſerted, and free for any People to enter upon, as the People of Virginia have done, by Order of the Great King, very juſtly, as well by an ancient Right; as by its being freed from the Poſſeſſion of any other, and from any Claim even of you the Six Nations, our Brethren, until within theſe eight Years. The firſt Treaty between the Great King, in Behalf of his Subjeſts of Virginia, and you, that we can find, was made at Albany, by Colonel Henry Courſy, Seventy Years ſince; this was a Treaty of Friendſhip, when the firſt Covenant Chain was made, when we and you became Brethren.

THE next Treaty was alſo at Albany above Fifty-eight Years ago, by the Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia; then you declare yourſelves Subjects to the Great King, our Father, and gave up to him all your Lands for his Protection. This you own in a Treaty made by the Governor of New-York with you at the ſame Place in the Year 1687, and you expreſs yourſelves in theſe Words, "Brethren, you tell us the King of England is a very great King, and why ſhould not you join with us in a very juſt Cauſe, when the French join with our Enemies in an unjuſt Cauſe? O Brethern, we ſee the Reaſon

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of this; for the French would fain kill us all, and when that is done, they would carry all the Beaver Trade to Canada, and the Great King of ENGLAND would loſe the Land likewiſe; and therefore, O Great Sachim, beyond the Great Lakes, awake, and ſuffer not thoſe poor Indians, that have given themſelves and their Lands under your Protection, to be deſtroyed by the French without a Cauſe."

THE laſt Treaty we ſhall ſpeak to you about is that made at Albany by Governor Spotwood, which you have not recited as it is: For the white People, your Brethren of Virginia, are, in no Article of that Treaty, prohibited to paſs, and ſettle to the Weſtward of the Great Mountains. It is the Indians, tributary to Virginia, that are reſtrained, as you and your tributary Indians are from paſſing to the Eaſtward of the ſame Mountains, or to the Southward of Cohongoroeton, and you agree to this Article in theſe Words; "That the Great River of Potowmack, and the high Ridge of Mountains, which extend all along the Frontiers of Virginia to the Weſtward of the preſent Settlements of that Colony, ſhall be for ever the eſtabliſhed Boundaries between the Indians ſubject to the Dominions of Virginia, and the Indians belonging and depending on the Five Nations; ſo that neither our Indians ſhall not, on any Pretence whatſoever, paſs to Northward or Weſtward of the ſaid Boundaries, without having to produce a Paſſport under the hand and Seal of the Governor or Commander in Chief of Virginia; nor your Indians to paſs to the Southward or Eaſtward of the ſaid Boundaries, without a Paſſport in like Manner from the Governor or Commander in Chief of New-York."

AND what Right can you have to Lands that you have no Right to walk upon, but upon certain Conditions? It is true, you have not obſerved this Part of the Treaty, and your Brethren of Virginia have not inſiſted upon it with a due Strictneſs, which has occaſioned ſome Miſchief.

THIS Treaty has been ſent to the Governor of Virginia by Order of the Great King, and is what we muſt rely on, and, being in Writing, is more certain than your Memory. That is the Way the white People have of preſerving Tranſactions of every Kind, and tranſmitting them down to their Childrens Children for ever, and all Diſputes among them are ſettled by this faithful kind of Evidence, and muſt be the Rule between the Great King and you. This Treaty your Sachims and Warriors ſigned ſome Years after the ſame Governor Spotſwood, in the Right of the Great King, had been, with ſome People of Virginia, in Poſſeſſion of theſe very Lands, which you have ſet up your late Claim to.

THE Commiſſioners for Indian Affairs at Albany gave the Account we mentioned to you Yeſterday to the Governor of New-York, and he ſent it to the Governor of Virginia; their Names will be given you by the Interpreter.

Brethren,
THIS Diſpute is not between Virginia and you; it is ſetting up your Right againſt the Great King, under whoſe Grants the People you complain of are ſettled. Nothing but a Command from the Great King can remove them; they are too powerful to be removed by any Force of you, our Brethren; and the Great King, as our common Father, will do equal Juſtice

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to all his Children; wherefore we do believe they will be confirmed in their Poſſeſſions.

AS to the Road you mention, we intended to prevent any Occaſion for it, by making a Peace between you and the Southern Indians, a few Years ſince, at a conſiderable Expence to our Great King, which you confirmed at Albany. It ſeems, by your being at War with the Catawbas, that it has not been long kept between you.

HOWEVER, if you deſire a Road, we will agree to one on the Terms of the Treaty you made with Colonel Spotſwood, and your People, behaving themſelves orderly like Friends and Brethren, ſhall be uſed in their Paſſage through Virginia with the fame Kindneſs as they are when they paſs through the Lands of your Brother Onas. This, we hope, will be agreed to by you our Brethren, and we will abide by the Promiſe made to you Yeſterday.

WE may proceed to ſettle what we are to give you for any Right you may have, or have had to all the Lands to the Southward and Weſtward of the Lands of your Brother the Governor of Maryland, and of your Brother Onas; tho' we are informed that the Southern Indians claim theſe very Lands that you do.

WE are deſirous to live with you, our Brethren, according to the old Chain of Friendſhip, to ſettle all theſe Matters fairly and honeſtly; and, as a Pledge of our Sincerity, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

In the COURT-HOUSE Chamber at Lancaſter, June 29, 1744, A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

Mr. Weiſer informed the honourable Commiſſioners, the Indians were ready to give their Anſwer to the Speech made to them here Yeſterday Morning by the Commiſſioners; whereupon Canaſſatego ſpoke as follows, looking on a Dealboard, where were ſome black Lines, deſcribing the Courſes of Potowmack and Saſquahanna;

Brethren,
YESTERDAY you ſpoke to us concerning the Lands on this Side Potowmack River, and as we have deliberately conſidered what you ſaid to us on that Matter, we are now very ready to ſettle the Bounds of ſuch Lands, and releaſe our Right and Claim thereto.


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WE are willing to renounce all Right to Lord Baltimore of all thoſe Lands lying two Miles above the uppermoſt Fork of Potowmack or Cohongoration River, near which Thomas Creſſap has a hunting or trading Cabin, by a Northline, to the Bounds of Pennſylvania. But in caſe ſuch Limits ſhall not include every Settlement or Inhabitant of Maryland, then ſuch other Lines and Courſes, from the ſaid two Miles above the Forks, to the outermoſt Inhabitants or Settlements, as ſhall include every Settlement and Inhabitant in Maryland, and from thence, by a North-line, to the Bounds of Pennſylvania, ſhall be the Limits. And further, If any People already have, or ſhall ſettle beyond the Lands now deſcribed and bounded, they ſhall enjoy the ſame free from any Diſturbance whatever, and we do, and ſhall accept theſe People for our Brethren, and as ſuch always treat them.

WE earneſtly deſire to live with you as Brethren, and hope you will ſhew us all Brotherly Kindneſs in Token whereof, we preſent you with a Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

SOON after the Commiſſioners and Indians departed from the Court-Houſe Chamber.

In the COURT-HOUSE Chamber at Lancaſter, June 30, 1744, A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

Gachradodow, Speaker for the Indians, in Anſwer to the Commiſſioners Speech at the laſt Meeting, with a ſtrong Voice, and proper Action, ſpoke as follows:

Brother Aſſaragoa,
THE World at the firſt was made on the other Side of the Great Water different from what it is on this Side, as may be known from the different Colours of our Skin, and of our Fleſh, and that which you call Juſtice may not be ſo amongſt us; you have your Laws and Cuſtoms, and ſo have we. The Great King might ſend you over to conquer the Indians, but it looks to us that God did not approve of it; if he had, he would not have placed the Sea where it is, as the Limits between us and you.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
THO' great Things are well remembered among us, yet we don't remember that we were ever conquered by the Great King, or that we have been employed by that Great King to conquer others; if it was ſo, it is beyond our Memory. We do remember we were employed by Maryland to conquer the Coneſtogoes, and that the ſecond time we were at War with them, we carried them all off.


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Brother Aſſaragoa,
YOU charge as with not acting agreeable to our Peace with the Catawbas, we will repeat to you truly what was done. The Governor of New-York, at Albany, in Behalf of Aſſaragoa, gave us ſeveral Belts of Wampum from the Cherikees and Catawbas, and we agreed to a Peace, if thoſe Nations would ſend ſome of their great Men to us to confirm it Face to Face, and that they would trade with us; and deſired that they would appoint a Time to meet at Albany for that Purpoſe, but they never came.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
WE then deſired a Letter might be ſent to the Catawbas and Cherikees, to deſire them to come and confirm the Peace. It was long before an Anſwer came; but we met the Cherikees, and confirmed the Peace, and ſent ſome of our People to take care of them, until they returned to their own Country.

THE Catawbas refuſed to come, and ſent us word, That we were but Women, that they were Men, and double Men, for they had two P—s; that they could make Women of us, and would be always at War with us. They are a deceitful People. Our Brother Aſſaragoa is deceived by them; we don't blame him for it, but are ſorry he is deceived.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
WE have confirmed the Peace with the Cherikees, but not with the Catawbas. They have been treacherous, and know it; ſo that the War muſt continue till one of us is deſtroyed. This we think proper to tell you, that you may not be troubled at what we do to the Catawbas.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
WE will now ſpeak to the Point between us. You ſay you will agree with us as to the Road; we deſire that may be the Road which was laſt made (the Waggon-Road.) It is always a Cuſtom among Brethren or Strangers to uſe each other kindly; you have ſome very ill-natured People living up there; ſo that we deſire the Perſons in Power may know that we are to have reaſonable Victuals when we are in want.

YOU know very well, when the white People came firſt here they were poor; but now they have got our Lands, and are by them become rich, and we are now poor; what little we have had for the Land goes ſoon away, but the Land laſts for ever. You told us you had brought with you a Cheſt of Goods, and that you have the Key in your Pockets; but we have never ſeen the Cheſt, nor the Goods that are ſaid to be in it; it may be ſmall, and the Goods few; we want to ſee them, and are deſirous to come to ſome Concluſion. We have been ſleeping here theſe ten Days paſt, and have not done any thing to the Purpoſe.

THE Commiſſioners told them they ſhould ſee the Goods on Monday,


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In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, June 30, 1744, P. M.
P R E S E N T
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter,

THE three Governments entertained the Indians, and all the Gentlemen in Town, with a handſome Dinner. The Six Nations, in their Order, having returned Thanks with the uſual Solemnity of Yo-ha-bon, the Interpreter informed the Governor and the Commiſſioners, that as the Lord Proprietor and Governor of Maryland was not known to the Indians by any particular Name, they had agreed, in Council, to take the firſt Opportunity of a large Company to preſent him with one; and as this with them is deemed a Matter of great Conſequence, and attended with Abundance of Form, the ſeveral Nations had drawn Lots for the Performance of the Ceremony, and the Lot falling on the Cayogo Nation, they had choſen Gachradodow, one of their Chiefs, to be their Speaker, and he deſired Leave to begin; which being given, he, on an elevated Part of the Court-Houſe, with all the Dignity of a Warrior, the Geſture of an Orator, and in a very graceful Posture, ſpoke as follows:

"As the Governor of Maryland had invited them here to treat about their Lands, and brighten the Chain of Friendſhip, the united Nations thought themſelves ſo much obliged to them, that they had come to a Reſolution in Council to give to the great Man, who is Proprietor of Maryland, a particular Name, by which they might hereafter correſpond with him; and as it had fallen to the Cayogoes Lot in Council to conſider of a proper Name for that chief Man, they had agreed to give him the Name of Tocarry-hogan, denoting Precedency, Excellency, or living in the middle or honourable Place betwixt Aſſaragoa and their Brother Onas, by whom their Treaties might be better carried on." And then, addreſſing himſelf to his Honour the Governor of Pennſylvania, the honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia and Maryland, and to the Gentlemen then preſent, he proceeded:

"As there is a Company of great Men now aſſembled, we take this Time and Opportunity to publiſh this Matter, that it may be known Tocarry-hogan is our Friend, and that we are ready to honour him, and that by ſuch Name he may be always called and known among us. And we hope he will ever act towards us according to the Excellency of the Name we have now given him, and enjoy a long and happy Life."

THE honourable the Governor and Commiſſioners, and all the Company preſent, returned the Compliment with three Huzza's, and, after drinking

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Healths to our gracious King and the Six Nations, the Commiſſioners of Maryland proceeded to Buſineſs in the Court-Houſe Chamber with the Indians, where Conrad Weiſer, the Interpreter, was preſent,

THE honourable the Commiſſioners ordered Mr. Weiſer to tell the Indians, that a Deed, releaſing all their Claim and Title to certain Lands lying in the Province of Maryland, which by them was agreed to be given and executed for the Uſe of the Lord Baron of Baltimore, Lord Proprietary of that Province, was now on the Table, and Seals ready fixed thereto. The Interpreter acquainted them therewith as deſired, and then gave the Deed to Canaſſatego the Speaker, who made his Mark, and put his Seal, and delivered it; after which, thirteen other Chiefs or Sachims of the Six Nations executed it in the ſame Manner, in the Preſence of the honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia, and divers other Gentlemen of that Colony, and of the Provinces of Pennſylvania and Maryland.

At the Houſe of Mr. George Sanderſon in Lancaſter, July 2, 1744, A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

THE ſeveral Chief: of the Indians of the Six Nations, who had not ſigned the Deed of Releaſe of their Claim to ſome Lands in Maryland, tendered to them on Saturday laſt, in the Chamber of the Court-Houſe in this Town, did now readily execute the ſame, and cauſed Mr. Weiſer likewiſe to ſign it, as well with his Indian, as with his own proper Name of Weiſer, as a Witneſs and Interpreter.

In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, July 2, 1744. A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, Etc.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

CANASSATEGO ſpoke as follows:

Brother Onas,
THE other Day you was pleaſed to tell us, you were always concerned whenever any thing happened that might give you or us Uneaſineſs, and that we were mutually engaged to preſerve the Road open and clear between

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us; and you informed us of the Murder of John Armſtrong, and his two Men, by ſome of the Delaware Indians, and of their ſtealing his Goods to a considerable Value. The Delaware Indians, as you ſuppoſe, are under our Power. We join with you in your Concern for ſuch a vile Proceeding; and, to teſtify that we have the ſame Inclinations with you to keep the Road clear, free and open, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

Brother Onas,
THESE Things happen frequently, and we deſire you will conſider them well, and not be too much concerned. Three Indians have been killed at different Times at Ohio, and we never mentioned any of them to you, imagining it might have been occaſioned by ſome unfortunate Quarrels, and being unwilling to create a Diſturbance. We therefore deſire you will conſider theſe Things well, and, to take the Grief from your Heart, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremonies.

Brother Onas,
WE had heard of the Murder of John Armſtrong, and, in our Journey here, we had Conference with our Couſins the Delawares about it, and reproved them severely for it, and charged them to go down to our Brother Onas, and make him Satisfaction, both for the Men that were killed, and for the Goods. We underſtood, by them, that the principal Actor in theſe Murders is in your Priſon, and that he had done all the Miſchief himſelf; but that, beſides him, you had required and demanded two others who were in his Company when the Murders were committed. We promiſe faithfully, in our Return, to renew our Reproofs, and to charge the Delawares to ſend down ſome of their Chiefs with theſe two young Men (but not as Priſoners) to be examined by you; and as we think, upon Examination, you will not find them guilty, we rely on your Juſtice not to do them any Harm, but to permit them to return home in Safety.

WE likewiſe underſtand, that Search has been made for the Goods belonging to the Deceaſed, and that ſome have been already returned to your People, but that ſome are ſtill miſſing. You may depend upon our giving the ſtricteſt Charge to the Delawares to ſearch again with more Diligence for the Goods, and to return them, or the Value of them, in Skins. And, to confirm what we have ſaid, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremonies.

Brother Onas,
THE Conoy Indians have informed us, that they ſent you a Meſſage, ſome Time ago, to adviſe you, that they were ill uſed by the white People in the Place where they had lived, and that they had come to a Reſolution of removing to Shamokin, and requeſted ſome ſmall Satisfaction for their Land; and as they never have received any Anſwer from you, they have deſired us to ſpeak for them; we heartily recommend their Caſe to your Generoſity.

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And, to give Weight to our Recommendation; we preſent you with this String of Wampum.
Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

The Governor having conferred a little Time with the honourable Commiſſioners of Virginia and Maryland, made the following Reply:

Bretheren,
I am glad to find that you agree with me in the Neceſſity of keeping the Road between us clear and open, and the Concern you have expreſſed on account of the barbarous Murders mentioned to you, is a Proof of your Brotherly Affection for us. If Crimes of this Nature be not ſtrictly enquired into, and the Criminals ſeverely puniſhed, there will be an End of all Commerce between us and the Indians, and then you will be altogether in the Power of the French. They will ſet what Price they pleaſe on their own Goods, and give you what they think fit for your Skins; ſo it is for your own Intereſt that our Traders ſhould be ſafe in their Perſons and Goods when they travel to your Towns.

Brethren,
I conſidered this Matter well before I came from Philadelphia, and I adviſed with the Council there upon it, as I have done here with the honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia and Maryland. I never heard before of the Murder of the three Indians at Ohio; had Complaint been made to me of it, and it had appeared to have been committed by any of the People under my Government, they ſhould have been put to Death, as two of them were, ſome Years ago, for killing two Indians. You are not to take your own Satisfaction, but to apply to me, and I will ſee that juſtice be done you; and ſhould any of the Indians rob or murder any of our People, I do expect that you will deliver them up to be tried and puniſhed in the ſame Manner as white People are. This is the Way to preſerve Friendſhip between us, and will be for your Benefit as well as ours. I am well pleaſed with the Steps you have already taken, and the Reproofs you have given to your Couſins the Delawares;, and do expect you will lay your Commands upon ſome of their Chiefs to bring down the two young Men that were preſent at the Murders; if they are not brought down, I ſhall look upon it as a Proof of their Guilt.

IF, upon Examination, they ſhall be found not to have been concerned in the bloody Action, they ſhall be well uſed, and ſent home in Safety: I will take it upon myſelf to ſee that they have no Injuſtice done them. An Inventory is taken of the Goods already reſtored, and I expect Satisfaction will be made for ſuch as cannot be found, in Skins, according to their Promiſe.

I well remember the coming down of one of the Conoy Indians with a Paper, ſetting forth, That the Conoys had come to a Reſolution to leave the Land reſerved for them by the Proprietors, but he made no Complaint to me of ill Uſage from the white People. The Reaſon he gave for their Removal was, That the ſettling of the white People all round them had made Deer ſcarce, and that therefore they choſe to remove to Juniata for the Benefit

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of Hunting. I ordered what they ſaid to be entered in the Council-Book. The old Man's Expences were born, and a Blanket given him at his Return home. I have not yet heard from the Proprietors on this Head; but you may be aſſured, from the Favour and Juſtice they have always ſhewn to the Indians, that they will do every thing that can be reaſonably expected of them in this Caſe.

In the COURT-HOUSE Chamber at Lancaſter, July 2, 1744, P. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia,
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

The Indians being told, by the Interpreter, that their Brother Aſſaragoa was going to ſpeak to them, the Commiſſioners ſpoke as follows:

Sachims and Warriors, our Friends and Brethren,
"AS we have already ſaid enough to you on the Subject of the Title to the Lands you claim from Virginia, we have no Occaſion to ſay any thing more to you on that Head, but come directly to the Point.

WE have opened the Cheſt, and the Goods are now here before you; they coſt Two Hundred Pounds Pennſylvania Money, and were bought by a Person recommended to us by the Governor of Pennſylvania with ready Caſh. We ordered them to be good in their Kinds, and we believe they are ſo. Theſe Goods, and Two Hundred Pounds in Gold, which lie on the Table, we will give you, our Brethren of the Six Nations, upon Condition that you immediately make a Deed recognizing the King's Right to all the Lands that are, or ſhall be, by his Majeſty's Appointment in the Colony of Virginia.

AS to the Road, we agree you ſhall have one, and the Regulation is in Paper, which the Interpreter now has in his Cuſtody to ſhew you. The People of Virginia ſhall perform their Part, if you and your Indians perform theirs; we are your Brethren, and will do no Hardſhips to you, but, on the contrary, all the Kindneſs we can."

THE Indians agreed to what was ſaid, and Canaſſatego deſired they would repreſent their Caſe to the King, in order to have a further Conſideration when the Settlement increaſed much further back. To which the Commiſſioners agreed, and promiſed they would make ſuch a Repreſentation faithfully and honeſtly; and, for their further Security that they would do ſo, they would give them a Writing, under their Hands and Seals, to that Purpoſe.

THEY deſired that ſome Rum might be given them to drink on their Way home, which the Commiſſioners agreed to, and paid them in Gold for that

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Purpoſe, and the Carriage of their Goods from Philadelphia, Nine Pounds, Thirteen Shillings, and Three-pence, Pennſylvania Money.

Canaſſatego further ſaid, That as their Brother Tocarry-hogan ſent them Proviſion on the Road here, which kept them from ſtarving, he hoped their Brother would do the ſame for them back, and have the Goods he gave them carried to the uſual Place; which the Commiſſioners agreed to, and ordered Proviſions and Carriages to be provided accordingly.

AFTER this Conference the Deed was produced, and the Interpreter explained it to them; and they, according to their Rank and Quality, put their Marks and Seals to it in the Preſence of ſeveral Gentlemen of Maryland, Pennſylvania and Virginia; and when they delivered the Deed, Canaſſatego delivered it for the Uſe of their Father, the Great King, and hoped he would conſider them; on which the Gentlemen and Indians then preſent gave three Shouts.

In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, Tueſday, July 3, 1744, A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland.
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

The GOVERNOR ſpoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations,
AT a Treaty held with many of the Chiefs of your Nations Two Years ago, the Road between us was made clearer and wider; our Fire was enlarged, and our Friendſhip confirmed by an Exchange of Presents, and many other mutual good Offices.

WE think ourſelves happy in having been inſtrumental to your meeting with our Brethren of Virginia and Maryland; and we perſuade ourſelves, that you, on your Parts, will always remember it as an Inſtance of our Goodwill and Affection for you. This has given us an Opportunity of ſeeing you ſooner than perhaps we ſhould otherwise have done; and, as we are under mutual Obligations by Treaties, we to hear with our Ears for you, and you to hear with your Ears for us, we take this Opportunity to inform you of what very nearly concerns us both.

THE Great King of ENGLAND and the French King have declared War againſt each other. Two Battles have been fought, one by Land, and the

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other by Sea. The Great King of ENGLAND commanded the Land Army in Perſon, and gained a compleat Victory. Numbers of the French were killed and taken Priſoners, and the reſt were forced to paſs a River with Precipitation to ſave their Lives. The Great God covered the King's Head in that Battle, ſo that he did not receive the leaſt Hurt; for which you, as well as we, have Reaſon to be very thankful.

THE Engagement at Sea was likewiſe to the Advantage of the Engliſh. The French and Spaniards joined their Ships together, and came out to fight us. The brave Engliſh Admiral burnt one of their largeſt Ships, and many others were ſo ſhattered, that they were glad to take the Opportunity of a very high Wind, and a dark Night, to run away, and to hide themſelves again in their own Harbours. Had the Weather proved fair, he would, in all Probability, have taken or deſtroyed them all.

I need not put you in mind how much William Penn and his Sons have been your Friends, and the Friends of all the Indians. You have long and often experienced their Friendſhip for you; nor need I repeat to you how kindly you were treated, and what valuable Preſents were made to you Two Years ago by the Governor, the Council, and the Aſſembly, of Pennſylvania. The Sons of William Penn are all now in England, and have left me in their Place, well knowing how much I regard you and all the Indians. As a freſh Proof of this, I have left my Houſe, and am come thus far to ſee you, to renew our Treaties, to brighten the Covenant Chain, and to confirm our Friendſhip with you. In Teſtimony whereof, I preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

AS your Nations have engaged them ſelves by Treaty to aſſiſt us, your Brethren of Pennſylvania, in caſe of a War with the French, we do not doubt but you will punctually perform an Engagement ſo ſolemnly entred into. A War is now declared; and we expect that you will not ſuffer the French, or any of the Indians in Alliance with them, to march through your Country to diſturb any of our Settlements; and that you will give us the earlieſt and beſt Intelligence of any Deſigns that may be formed by them to our Diſadvantage, as we promiſe to do of any that may be to yours. To enforce what I have now ſaid to you in the ſtrongeſt Manner, I preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

After a little Pauſe his Honour, the GOVERNOR, ſpoke again

Friends and Brethren of the Six Nations,
WHAT I have now ſaid to you is in Conformity to Treaties ſubſiſting between the Province of which I am Governor and your Nations. I now proceed, with the Conſent of the honourable Commiſſioners for Virginia and Maryland, to tell you, that all Differences having been adjuſted, and the Roads between us and you made quite clear and open, we are ready to confirm our Treaties with your Nations, and eſtabliſh a Friendſhip that is not to end, but with the World itſelf. And, in Behalf of the Province of Pennſylvania, I do, by this fine Belt of Wampum, and a Preſent of Goods,

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to the Value of Three Hundred Pounds, confirm and eſtabliſh the ſaid Treaties of Peace, Union and Friendſhip, you on your Parts doing the ſame.

Which was received with a loud Yo-hah.

THE Governor further added, The Goods bought with the One Hundred Pounds Sterling, put into my Hands by the Governor of Virginia, are ready to be delivered when you pleaſe. The Goods bought and ſent up by the People of the Province of Pennſylvania, according to the Liſt which the Interpreter will explain, are laid by themſelves, and are likewiſe ready to be delivered to you at your own time.

After a little Pauſe the Commiſſioners of Virginia ſpoke as follows:

Sachems and Warriors of the Six Nations,
THE Way between us being made ſmooth by what paſſed Yeſterday, we deſire now to confirm all former Treaties made between Virginia and you, our Brethren of the Six Nations, and to make our Chain of Union and Friendſhip as bright as the Sun, that it may not contract any more Ruſt for ever; that our Childrens Children may rejoice at, and confirm what we have done; and that you and your Children may not forget it, we give you One Hundred Pounds in Gold, and this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

Friends and Brethren,
ALTHO' we have been diſappointed in our Endeavours to bring about a Peace between you and the Catawbas, yet we deſire to ſpeak to you ſomething more about them. We believe they have been unfaithful to you, and ſpoke of you with a foolish Contempt; but this may be only the Raſhneſs of ſome of their young Men. In this Time of War with our common Enemies the French and Spaniards, it will be the wiſeſt Way to be at Peace among ourſelves. They, the Catawbas, are alſo Children of the Great King, and therefore we deſire you will agree, that we may endeavour to make a Peace between you and them, that we may be all united by one common Chain of Friendſhip. We give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the Uſual Ceremony.

Brethren,
OUR Friend, Conrad Weiſer, when he is old, will go into the other World, as our Fathers have done; our Children will then want ſuch a Friend to go between them and your Children, to reconcile any Differences that may happen to ariſe between them, that, like him, may have the Ears and Tongues of our Children and yours.

THE Way to have ſuch a Friend, is for you to ſend three or four of your Boys to Virginia, where we have a fine Houſe for them to live in, and a Man on purpoſe to teach the Children of you, our Friends, the Religion, Language and Cuſtoms of the white People. To this Place we kindly invite you to ſend ſome of your Children, and we promiſe you they ſhall have the ſame Care taken of them, and be inſtructed in the ſame Manner

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as our own Children, and be returned to you again when you pleaſe; and, to confirm this, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

Then the Commiſſioners of Maryland ſpoke as follows:

Friends and Brethren, the Chiefs or Sachims of the Six united Nations,
THE Governor of Maryland invited you hither, we have treated you as Friends, and agreed with you as Brethren.

AS the Treaty now made concerning the Lands in Maryland will, we hope, prevent effectualy every future Miſunderſtanding between us on that Account, we will now bind faſter the Links of our Chain of Friendſhip by a Renewal of all our former Treaties; and that they may ſtill be the better ſecured, we ſhall preſent you with One Hundred Pounds in Gold.

WHAT we have further to ſay to you is, Let not our Chain contract any Ruſt; whenever you perceive the leaſt Speck, tell us of it, and we will make it clean. This we alſo expect of you, that it may always continue ſo bright as our Generations may ſee their Faces in it; and, in Pledge of the Truth of what we have now ſpoken, and our Affection to you, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

CANASSATEGO, in return, ſpoke as follows:

Brother Onas, Aſſaragoa, and Tocarry-hogan,
WE return you Thanks for your ſeveral Speeches, which are very agreeable to us. They contain Matters of ſuch great Moment, that we propoſe to give them a very ſerious Conſideration, and to anſwer them ſuitably to their Worth and Excellence; and this will take till To-morrow Morning, and when we are ready we will give you due Notice.

YOU tell us you beat the French; if ſo, you muſt have taken a great deal of Rum from them, and can the better ſpare us ſome of that Liquor to make us rejoice with you in the Victory.

THE Governor and Commiſſioners ordered a Dram of Rum to be given to each in a ſmall Glaſs, calling it, A French Glaſs.


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In the COURT-HOUSE at Lancaſter, July 4, 1744, A. M.
P R E S E N T,
The Honourable GEORGE THOMAS, Eſq; Governor, &c.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Virginia.
The Honourable the Commiſſioners of Maryland,
The Deputies of the Six Nations.
Conrad Weiſer, Interpreter.

CANASSATEGO Speaker:

Brother Onas,
YESTERDAY you expreſſed your Satisfaction in having been inſtrumental to our meeting with our Brethren of Virginia and Maryland. We, in return, aſſure you, that we have great Pleaſure in this Meeting, and thank you for the Part you have had in bringing us together, in order to create a good Underſtanding, and to clear the Road; and, in Token of our Gratitude, we preſent you with this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony,

Brother Onas,
YOU was pleaſed Yeſterday to inform us, "That War had been declared between the Great King of ENGLAND and the French King; that two great Battles had been fought, one by Land, and the other at Sea; with many other Particulars." We are glad to hear the Arms of the King of England were ſucceſſful, and take part with you in your Joy on this Occaſion. You then came nearer Home, and told us, "You had left your Houſe, and were come thus far on Behalf of the whole People of Pennſylvania to ſee us; to renew your Treaties; to brighten the Covenant Chain, and to confirm your Friendſhip with us." We approve this Propoſition; we thank you for it. We own, with Pleaſure, that the Covenant Chain between us and Pennſylvania is of old Standing, and has never contracted any Ruſt; we wiſh it may always continue as bright as it has done hitherto; and, in Token of the Sincerity of our Wiſhes, we preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the Yo-hah.

Brother Onas,
YOU was pleaſed Yeſterday to remind us of our mutual Obligation to aſſiſt each other in caſe of a War with the French, and to repeat the Subſtance of what we ought to do by our Treaties with you; and that as a

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War had been already entered into with the French, you called upon us to aſſist you, and not to ſuffer the French to march through our Country to diſturb any of your Settlements.

IN anſwer, We aſſure you we have all theſe Particulars in our Hearts, they are freſh in our Memory. We ſhall never forget that you and we have but one Heart, one Head, one Eye, one Ear, and one Hand. We ſhall have all your Country under our Eye, and take all the Care we can to prevent any Enemy from coming into it; and, in Proof of our Care, we muſt inform you, that before we came here, we told[*] Onantio, our Father, as he is called, that neither he, nor any of his People, ſhould come through our Country, to hurt our Brethren the Engliſh, or any of the Settlements belonging to them; there was Room enough at Sea to fight, there he might do what he pleaſed, but he ſhould not come upon our Land to do any Damage to our Brethren. And you may depend upon our uſing our utmoſt Care to ſee this effectually done; and, in Token of our Sincerity, we preſent you with this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

After ſome little Time the Interpreter ſaid, Canaſſatego had forgot ſomething material, and deſired to mend his Speech, and to do ſo as often as he ſhould omit any thing of Moment, and thereupon be added:

THE Six Nations have a great Authority and Influence over ſundry Tribes of Indians in Alliance with the French, and particularly over the praying Indians, formerly a Part with ourſelves, who ſtand in the very Gates of the French; and, to ſhew our further Care, we have engaged theſe very Indians; and other Indian Allies of the French for you. They will not join the French against you. They have agreed with us before we ſet out. We have put the Spirit of Antipathy against the French in thoſe People. Our Intereſt is very conſiderable with them, and many other Nations, and as far as ever it extends, we ſhall uſe it for your Service.

THE Governor ſaid, Canaſſatego did well to mend his Speech; he might always do it whenever his Memory ſhould fail him in any Point of Conſequence, and he thanked him for the very agreeable Addition.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
YOU told us Yeſterday, that all Diſputes with you being now at an End, you deferred to confirm all former Treaties between Virginia and us, and to make our Chain of Union as bright as the Sun.

WE agree very heartily with you in theſe Propoſitions; we thank you for your good Inclinations; we deſire you will pay no Regard to any idle Stories that may be told to our Prejudice. And, as the Diſpute about the Land is now intirely over, and we perfectly reconciled, we hope, for the future, we ſhall not act towards each other but as becomes Brethren and hearty Friends.

*. Onantio, the Governor of Canada[back]



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WE are very willing to renew the Friendſhip with you, and to make it as firm as poſſible, for us and our Children with you and your Children to the lateſt Generation, and we deſire you will imprint theſe Engagements on your Hearts in the ſtrongeſt Manner; and, in Confirmation that we shall do the ſame, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

Which was received with Yo-hah from the Interpreter and all the Nations.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
YOU did let us know Yeſterday, that tho' you had been diſappointed in your Endeavours to bring about a Peace between us and the Catawbas, yet you would ſtill do the beſt to bring ſuch a Thing about. We are well pleaſed with your Deſign, and the more ſo, as we hear you know what ſort of People the Catawbas are, that they are ſpiteful and offenſive, and have treated us contemptuouſly. We are glad you know theſe Things of the Catawbas; we believe what you ſay to be true, that there are, notwithſtanding, ſome amongſt them who are wiſer and better; and, as you ſay, they are your Brethren, and belong to the Great King over the Water, we ſhall not be againſt a Peace on reaſonable Terms, provided they will come to the Northward to treat about it. In Confirmation of what we ſay, and to encourage you in your Undertaking, we give you this String of Wampum:
Which was received with the uſual Ceremonies,

Brother Aſſaragoa;
YOU told us likewiſe, you had a great Houſe provided for the Education of Youth, and that there were ſeveral white People and Indians Children there to learn Languages, and to write and read, and invited us to ſend ſome of our Children amongſt you, &c.

WE muſt let you know we love our Children too well to ſend them ſo great a Way, and the Indians are not inclined to give their Children Learning. We allow it to be good, and we thank you for your Invitation but our Cuſtoms differing from yours, you will be ſo good as to excuſe us.

WE hope[*] Tarachawagon will be preſerved by the good Spirit to a good old Age; when he is gone under Ground, it will be then time enough to look out for another; and no doubt but amongſt ſo many Thouſands as there are in the World, one ſuch Man may be found, who will ſerve both parties with the ſame Fidelity as Tarachawagon does; while he lives there is no Room to complain. In Token of our Thankfulneſs for your Invitation, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Ceremony.

Brother Tocarry-hogan,
YOU told us Yeſterday, that ſince there was now nothing in Controverſy between us, and the Affair of the Land was ſettled to your Satisfaction, you would now brighten the Chain of Friendſhip which hath ſubſiſted between

*. Tarachawagon, Conrad Weiſer [back]



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you and us ever ſince we became Brethren; we are well pleaſed with the Propoſition, and we thank you for it; we alſo are inclined to renew all Treaties, and keep a good Correſpondence with you. You told us further, if ever we ſhould perceive the Chain had contracted any Ruſt, to let you know, and you would take care to take the Ruſt out, and preſerve it bright. We agree with you in this, and ſhall, on our Parts, do every thing to preſerve a good Underſtanding, and to live in the ſame Friendſhip with you as with our Brother Onas and Aſſaragoa; in Confirmation whereof, we give you this Belt of Wampum.

On which the uſual Cry of Yo-hah was given.

Brethren,
WE have now finiſhed our Anſwer to what you ſaid to us Yeſterday, and ſhall now proceed to Indian Affairs, that are not of ſo general a Concern.

Brother Aſſaragoa,
THERE lives a Nation of Indians on the other Side of your Country, the Tuſcaroraes, who are our Friends, and with whom we hold Correſpondence; but the Road between us and them; has been ſtopped for ſome Time, on account of the Miſbehaviour of ſome of our Warriors. We have opened a new Road for our Warriors, and they ſhall keep to that; but as that would be inconvenient for Meſſengers going to the Tuſcaroraes, we deſire they may go the old Road. We frequently ſend Meſſengers to one another, and ſhall have more Occaſion to do ſo now that we have concluded a Peace with the Cherikees. To enforce our Requeſt, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Cry of Approbation.

Brother Aſſarogoa,
AMONG there Tuſcaroraes there live a few Families of the Conoy Indians, who are deſirous to leave them, and to remove to the reſt of their Nation among us, and the ſtraight Road from them to us lies through the Middle of your Country. We deſire you will give them free Paſſage through Virginia, and furniſh them with Paſſes; and, to enforce our Requeſt, we give you this String of Wampum.

Which was received with the uſual Cry of Approbation.

Brother Onas, Aſſaragoa, and Tocarry-hogan,
AT the Cloſe of your reſpective Speeches Yeſterday, you made us very handſome Preſents, and we ſhould return you ſomething ſuitable to your Generoſity; but, alas, we are poor, and ſhall ever remain ſo, as long as there are ſo many Indian Traders among us. Theirs and the white Peoples Cattle have eat up all the Graſs, and made Deer ſcarce. However, we have provided a ſmall Preſent for you, and tho' ſome of you gave us more than others, yet, as you are all equally our Brethren, we ſhall leave it to you to divide it as you pleaſe. — And then preſented three Bundles of Skins, which were received with the uſual Ceremony from the three Governments.


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WE have one Thing further to ſay, and that is, We heartily recommend Union and a good Agreement between you our Brethren. Never diſagree, but preſerve a ſtrict Friendſhip for one another, and thereby you, as well as we, will become the ſtronger.

OUR wiſe Forefathers eſtabliſhed Union and Amity between the Five Nations; this has made us formidable; this has given us great Weight and Authority with our neighbouring Nations.

WE are a powerful Confederacy; and, by your obſerving the ſame Methods our wiſe Forefathers have taken, you will acquire freſh Strength and Power; therefore whatever befals you, never fall out one with another.

The Governor replied:
THE honourable Commiſſioners of Virginia and Maryland have deſired me to ſpeak for them; therefore I, in Behalf of thoſe Governments, as well as of the Province of Pennſylvania, return you Thanks for the many Proofs you have given in your Speeches of your Zeal for the Service of your Brethren the Engliſh, and in particular for your having ſo early engaged in a Neutrality the ſeveral Tribes of Indians in the French Alliance. We do not doubt but you will faithfully diſcharge your Promiſes. As to your Preſents, we never eſtimate theſe Things by their real Worth, but by the Diſpoſition of the Giver. In this Light we accept them with great Pleaſure, and put a high Value upon them. We are obliged to you for recommending Peace and good Agreement amongſt ourſelves. We are all Subjeſts, as well as you, of the Great King beyond the Water; and, in Duty to his Majeſty, and from the good Affection we bear to each other, as well as from a Regard to our own Intereſt, we ſhall always be inclined to live in Friendſhip.

THEN the Commiſſioners of Virginia preſented the Hundred Pounds in Gold, together with a Paper, containing a Promiſe to recommend the Six Nations for further Favour to the King; which they received with Yo-hah, and the Paper was given by them to Conrad Weiſer to keep for them. The Commiſſioners likewiſe promiſed that their publick Meſſengers should not be moleſted in their Paſſage through Virginia, and that they would prepare Paſſes for ſuch of the Conoy Indians as were willing to remove to the Northward.

THEN the Commiſſioners of Maryland preſented their Hundred Pounds in Gold, which was likewiſe received with the Yo-hah.

Canaſſatego ſaid, We mentioned to you Yeſterday the Booty you had taken from the French, and aſked you for ſome of the Rum which we ſuppoſed to be Part of it, and you gave us ſome; but it turned out unfortunately that you gave us it in French Glaſſes, we now deſire you will give us ſome in Engliſh Glaſſes.

THE Governor made anſwer, We are glad to hear you have ſuch a Diſlike for what is French. They cheat you in your Glaſſes, as well as in every thing elſe. You muſt conſider we are at a Diſtance from Williamſburg, Annapolis, and Philadelphia, where our Rum Stores are, and that altho' we brought up a good Quantity with us, you have almost drunk it out; but, notwithſtanding this, we have enough left to fill our Engliſh Glaſſes, and will ſhew the

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Difference between the Narrowneſs of the French, and the Generoſity of you: Brethren the Engliſh towards you.

THE Indians gave, in their Order five Yo-hahs; and the honourable Governor and Commiſſioners calling for ſome Rum, and ſome middle ſized Wine Glaſſes, drank Health to the Great King of ENGLAND and the Six Nations, and put an End to the Treaty by three loud Huzzah's, in which all the Company joined.

IN the Evening the Governor went to take his Leave of the Indians, and, preſenting them with a String of Wampum, he told them, that was in return for one he had received of them, with a Meſſage to deſire the Governor of Virginiato ſuffer their Warriors to go through Virginia unmoleſted, which was rendered unneceſſary by the preſent Treaty.

THEN, preſenting them with another String of Wampum, he told them, that was in return for theirs, praying him, that as they had taken away one Part of Conrad Weiſer's Beard, which frightened their Children, he would pleaſe to take away the other, which he had ordered to be done.

The Indians received theſe two Strings of Wampum with the uſual Yo-hah.

THE Governor then aſked them, what was the Reaſon that more of the Shawanaes, from their Town on Hohio, were not at the Treaty? But ſeeing that it would require a Council in Form, and perhaps another Day to give an Anſwer, he deſired they would give an Anſwer to Conrad Weiſer upon the Road on their Return home, for he was to ſet out for Philadelphia the next Morning.

CANASSATEGO in Concluſion ſpoke as follows:

WE have been hindered, by a great deal of Buſineſs, from waiting on you, to have ſome private Converſation with you, chiefly to enquire after the Healths of Onas beyond the Water; we deſire you will tell them, we have a grateful Senſe of all their Kindneſſes for the Indians. Brother Onas told us, when he went away, he would not ſtay long from us; we think it is a great While, and want to know when we may expect him, and deſire, when you write, you will recommend us heartily to him; which the Governor promiſed to do, and then took his Leave of them.

THE Commiſſioners of Virginia gave Conaſſatego a Scarlet Camblet Coat, and took their Leave of them in Form, and at the ſame time delivered the Paſſes to them, according to their Requeſt.

THE Commiſſioners of Maryland preſented Gacbradodow with a broad Gold-laced Hat, and took their Leave of them in the ſame Manner.

A true Copy, compared by RICHARD PETERS, Secry.

THE END