Document Metadata

Description Ratified treaty # 7: Treaty of Fort Stanwix, or The Grant from the Six Nations to the King and Agreement of Boundary — Six Nations, Shawnee, Delaware, Mingoes of Ohio, 1768
Source O'Callaghan, E. B. (Ed.). (1857). Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, vol. 8. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons, and Co., 111–137.

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Proceedings of Sir William Johnson with the Indians at Fort Stanwix to settle a Boundary Line.

[Plantations General, XXX., Bundle V. 7.]

Proceedings at a Treaty held by Sir William Johnson Baronet with the Six Nations, Shawanese, Delawares, Senecas of Ohio and other dependant Tribes, at Fort Stanwix in the months of October & November 1768, for the settlement of a Boundary Line between the Colonies and Indians, pursuant to His Majesty's orders

The Time appointed for the Indians to meet at Fort Stanwix being the 20th of Septr Sr Wm Johnson arrived there on the 19th accompanied by the Governor of New Jersey and several

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other Gentlemen, with 20 Boats loaded with the Goods intended for the Present to be made by the Cession of Lands to the King. The Commissioners from Virginia were already there, and on the 21st arrived Lieutt Govr Penn with Commrs from Pensilvania & several other gentlemen, The same day Messrs Wharton & Trent of Pensylvania delivered in an account of the Traders losses in 1763, together with their Powers of Attorney for obtaining a retribution in Lands, pursuant to an article of the Treaty of Peace in 1765

Several Indians came in & informed Sir Wm Johnson that those of Susquehanna were near at hand, and gave him sundry intelligences

On the 29th some Delawares arrived from Muskingham who left the Shawanees at Fort Pitt on their way to Fort Stanwix

30th The Bounds between the Mohawks and Stockbridge Indians were adjusted to mutual Satisfaction, and the latter returned home

At the beginning of October, there were 800 Indians assembled & continued coming in dayly till after the Treaty was opened. The upper Nations still remaining behind thro' evil Reports, and Belts sent amongst them. Sir William dispatched Messengers to hasten them and held several Congresses with those on the spot, antecedent to the Treaty, for adjusting differences and preparing them to enter heartily upon business on the arrival of the rest

On the 15th of Octr Govr Penn urged by the Affairs of his Province set off for Philadelphia leaving behind him as Commissioners Messrs Peters & Tilghman.

By the 22d there were 2200 Indians collected and several large Parties coming in the next day, amongst whom were all the cheifs of the upper Nations, Sir William prepared to open the Congress on the 24th

At a Treaty with the 6 Nations Shawanese Delawares, Senecas of Ohio & Dependants &c. opened at Fort Stanwix on Monday the 24 Oct. 1768.

PRESENT — Honble Sir Wm Johnson Bart Superintdt

His Excellcy Wm Franklin Esq re Govr of New Jersey

Thomas Walker Esqre Commr from Virginia

Honble Fred. Smith[1] Ch. Justice of New Jersey.

Richd Peters & James Tilghman Commrs from the Province of Pensylvania.

Deputy Agents of Indian affairs
George Croghan Esqre Daniel Claus Esqre

Guy Johnson Esqre Dep: Agent as Secretary.

With sundry Gents: from different Colonies

Interpreters John Butler Esqre Mr Andrew Montour Philip Philips

1. FREDRICK SMYTH, the last Chief Justice of the Colony of New Jersey, succeeded Chief Justice Read on the bench on the 17th October, 1764, and continued in office until the adoption of the Constitution. In 1772 he was appointed one of the Commissioners to examine into the affairs of the burning of the British schooner Gaspé by the Whigs of Rhode Island. When the Revolution broke out he removed to Philadelphia, where he died. His reputation as a judge was highly respectable, and throughout his career he preserved the character of a firm and consistent Loyalist. Field's Provincial Courts of New Jersey. — ED[back]



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Indian Cheifs Present

MOHAWKS
Abraham Aroghiadecka Onohario Kanadagaya Kayenqueregoa Kendrick Tobarihoga &c &c &c.

ONONDAGAS
The Bunt Diaquanda Tawawshughti Tewawmit &c. &c.

SENECAS
Guastrax Odongot &c &c &c.

ONEIDAS
Ganaghquieson Senughsis Tagawaron Nicholasera Cajuheta &c &c &c.

CAJUGAS
Tagaaia Atrawawna Skanarady &c &c &c

TUSCARORAS
Saquarcesera Kanigot Tyagawehe &c &c &c

MINGOS of Ohio SHAWANESE
Benevissica

DELAWARES
Killbuck Turtleheart

The whole being seated Mr Walker[1] delivered his Power, as Commr from Virginia to Sir William Johnson which was in the words following

"John Blair Esqre President of His Majesty's Council & Commander in Cheif of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, To Thomas Walker Esqre

By virtue of the Power & Authority to me committed as President of His Matys Council & Commander in Cheif in and over this Colony & Dominion of Virginia, I do hereby appoint you the said Thomas Walker to be Commissioner of Virginia to settle a Boundary Line between this Colony, & the Colonies of Pensylvania and Maryland & the several Nations of Indians concerned. You are required to attend at a Congress to be held for that purpose under the direction of Sir William Johnson agreeable to His Majesty's Instructions when you are to pay due regard to the Interest of His Majesty & such Instructions as you shall receive

1. Doctor THOMAS WALKER was an early explorer of the Indian country of Western Virginia. In 1718 he crossed Powell's valley and gave the name of "Cumberland" to the lofty range of mountains to the west, and passed a remarkable depression in the chain, which he called the "Cumberland gap," and next named the Shawanee the Cumberland river, all in honor of the Duke of Cumberland. Monette's Mississippi, I., 314. In 1760 he again passed the Clinch and Powell rivers into what is now Kentucky, on which occasion, it is supposed, he was accompanied by the celebrated Daniel Boone. Ramsey's Tennessee, 65, 66. These circumstances account for his appointment as Commissioner at the present Treaty. — ED[back]



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from me. Given under my hand & Seal of the Colony of Williamsburgh this 17th day of June in the eighth year of His Majesty's Reign. A. D. 1768.

JOHN BLAIR."

Messrs Peters & Tilghman being likewise admitted as Commrs for Pensilvania, Sir William, then by Abraham Cheif of the Mohawks, addressed the Indians

Bretheren
I take you by the hand and heartily bid you all wellcome to this place where I have kindled a Council Fire for affairs of importance. The Govr of New Jersey and the Commrs of Virginia & Pensilvania do likewise welcome you here. Lieutt Govr Penn came hither to meet you & waited a considerable time, but was at length by business obliged to return home, leaving these Gentlemen as Commrs on behalf of Pensylvania

Both the Govr & Gentlemen Commrs as well as myself, having waited here a month to no purpose began to be impatient never the less you see that their desire to meet you prevailed over every other consideration and induced them to stay. I hope therefore that you are now come fully prepared and with Hearts well inclined to the great business for which we are convened, and in order to prepare you the better for these purposes, I do now, agreeable to the antient custom establishd by our Forefathers, proceed to the ceremony of Condolence usual on these occasions

And first: With this String of Wamp: I do, on behalf of His Majesty & all His subjects wipe away the Tears from your eyes which you are constantly shedding for your late deceased Cheifs, and I clear your sight that so you may look cheerfully at your Bretheren, who are come from Several of the Provinces to attend this General Congress ordered by His Majesty to be held by me; in order to settle some necessary points between him & you

With this String I clear the Passage to your Hearts that you may speak cheerfully and candidly on the several subjects which, during this Congress, will be treated of, as well as to remove all sorrow & uneasiness from you

With this last string I wipe away the blood of your friends from off your Births, that you may on your return rest with Peace and comfort on them Gave the 3 Strings

Bretheren
I am greatly concerned for the many losses you have sustained in your several Nations since our last meeting & sincerely condole with you for them all 1. A Belt. Brethren
With this Belt I light up, anew your several Council Fires, that the Cheifs still remaining may upon all occasions sit comfortably by them and consult on the several matters, which may come before them. 2. A Belt

Brethren
As I have by the former Belt kindled up your several Council Fires, I do now by this Belt desire, that you the Councillors will duly assemble, when the affairs of your nations require it, & then jealously apply yourselves to every measure which may tend to your Peace and Interest. A Belt

Brethren.
With this Belt I dispel the darkness which for some time past hath overspread your several Countries, by reason of your many & great Losses, and now heartily wish you may enjoy a

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serene clear sky, so that you may be able to see your Brethren from the Sun rising to the Sun setting 4 A. Belt

Brethren,
As I would deal with all people in their own way, and that your Ancestors have from the earliest time directed and recommended the observation of a Sett of Rules which they laid down for you to follow, I do now, agreeable to that custom, take of the clearest water and therewith cleanse your inside from all Filth and every thing which has given you concern. 5 A Belt

Brethren
I must desire that you Sachems & Councillors will, as occasions may require consult with the Cheiftains of your young men, as they are in general men of sense and experience; and you cheiftains and Warriors to pay a due regard to your Sachems and Councillors whose sage advice will seldom or never be amiss 6 A Belt

Brethren
In performing these ceremonies I can not omit this necessary part, which is, that as there are but two Council Fires for your confederacy, the one at my house and the other at Onondaga, I must desire that you will always be ready to attend either of them, when called upon, by which means business will I hope, always be attended & properly carried on for our mutual Interest, and this I earnestly recommend to you all 7 A Belt

Brethren
I must also advise you to be unanimous amongst yourselves & reside in your respective Countries, and not think of scattering or settling amongst other Nations, as has been too much the Practice for some years past, to the great weakening of your confederacy. 8 A Belt

Brethren
I give you a Pouch with a String of Wampum in it, which you are to make use of when you here of the loss of any of the Confederacy, and rise up on such occasions without delay in order to condole for the same, and remove the concern thereby occasioned 3 Strings of Wampum

Brethren
I now supply you with a torch or candle which you are to travel with by night upon any extraordinary emergency, such as the approach of an enemy, in order to communicate the News with the utmost despatch. 3 Strings

The Nations gave the Yo-hah at the proper places, and the ceremony of Condolence. Adjourned till next day.

At a Congress with the several Nations on Tuesday 25th Octr

PRESENT — as before.

Canaghquieson, Chief of Oneida, stood up & addressing all present, observd that the several American Governors had Indian Names, by which they were known to the Indians, the Governor of New Jersey excepted; that he therefore thought it necessary to compliment him with a name, which he did by bestowing his own name upon him, on which his Excellency

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Govr Franklin shook him by the hand & returned him thanks. Then Canaghquieson proceeded to answer the ceremony of Condolence as follows

Brother
We congratulate you, the Govr and the rest of the Gentlemen on your safe arrival at this Place, where we are heartily glad to meet you. Then after repeating what Sir William had said on the first strings, yesterday, he said, they did on their parts wipe away the Tears which their Brothers the English were shedding for their losses as also the blood of their friends from their seats, cleansing their hearts that they may be able to attend the important affairs which were to be transacted Gave 3 Strings

Then repeated all that Sir William had said on the Black Belts given at the Condolence for all which he returned thanks and said

Brother
We are much concerned at the losses you have met with since our last Congress, and we sincerely condole with you upon the occasion for them all. A Belt of 9 Rows

Brother
We thank you for rekindling our several Council Fires, whereby we are enabled to proceed to business as formerly, and we shall endeavour to render our Meetings useful to the Public. A Belt.

Brother
We thank you for the advice you give us, to assemble duly when the publick affairs require it, and we assure you that we will direct our thoughts, to the maintenance of Peace and good order. A Belt

Brother
We are much obliged to you for dispelling the darkness that surroundd our several Nations on account of our many losses. This we take very kindly of you, as we were in great heaviness for some time past, and all our Nations join in thanking you and performing the same on their parts. A Belt.

Brother
We all express our thanks to you for the remembrance of our antient ceremonies. We consider them as the cement of our union, and as you have cleansed us with water, we do in like manner take of the clearest running stream & wash your inside thoroughly therewith cleansing you from all impurities A Belt

Brother
We esteem the advice you have given our cheifs to consult the young men as occasion may require, and your directions that they should on their parts pay due regard to us, and we shall observe whatever you have recommended to us A Belt

Brother
We are sensible that we have but two great Council Fires, the one at your house, the other at Onondaga, We shall always be ready to attend at either for the public Good, and we hope that you will continue to be ready to meet us often as the general Peace requires it A Belt


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Brother,
We give you thanks for recommending unanimity to us. We know that our living together is necessary to our happiness and that it gives us strength We will follow your advice, and we recommend it to the English to be unanimous in all good works A Belt.

Brother
We are happy to find you so observant of our ancient Customs, that you give us a string in a Pouch to make use of when we have occasion to communicate our losses and condole for them. We request you will be equally observant of these matters, that so our Grief may be timely and properly removed A Belt.

Brother
We also give you many thanks for supplying us with a Torch to travel with on emergencys. We assure that we shall make proper use of it, & communicate every necessary intelligence to you. All the six Nations, with the Shawanese, Delawares, & all their dependants as far as to the great Plains of Sioto, give you thanks for your good words which were a cordial to them, and they all request that you will continue in the same good sentiments. 3 Strings

The Ceremony of condolence being ended Sir William gave them a short exhortatn after which the Cheifs arose and shook hand with Govr Franklin & Canaghquieson addressing him said, that as he had given him his own name, the hoped that the would endeavour to acquire as much reputation with it amongst the People as he had done The Governor returned them many thanks

Then adjourned till the day following.

At a Congress Wednesday Oct. 26.

PRESENT — as before

Conoghquieson stood up and said that the Six Nations not being satisfied with his having given his own name to Goverr Franklin had met upon it, and in testimony of their sense of his, and his Peoples justice in causing the murtherers of some Indians to be put to death within his Government did now confer upon him the name of Sagorighweyoghsta,[1] or the Great Arbiter or Doer of Justice, wishing that he and the people of his Government might continue to act with the same Justice they had hitherto done. Whereupon Govr Franklin returned them thanks for the favor and assured them both himself and the people of his Government would upon all occasions manifest their esteem for the Indians and their inclination to do them justice Then Sir William addressed them Brethren We have now mutually prformed the Ceremony of Condolence as a proof of the regard we have for the Customs of our Ancestors & of the concern we feel for each others losses, I think

1. From the verb Garih8aieriston, to do, or render justice; which is compounded of Garih8a, a thing, and, Gajeri, just. By inserting io, great, in the middle of the verb, we have Garih|8a|io|ston, to do great justice; then prefixing Sa, Thou, and putting the verb in the present tense, we have, what is above intended for a noun, Sagarih8ioghsta, with the strong Mohawk guttural added, signifying, literally, Thou doest great justice, or Thou are a great Doer of Justice. Bruyas' Iroquois Vocabulary and Grammar. — ED[back]



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it highly necessary in the next place that we farther strengthen the Union between us and with that view I do therefore by this Belt in the name of your Father the great King of England, in behalf of all his American Subjects renew & confirm the Covenant Chain subsisting between us, strengthening it, and rubbing off any rust which it may have contracted that it may appear bright to all Nations as a proof of our love and Friendship, & I hope that all of you, sensible of the advantages of this union, will after the example of the English have it always before you, & keep it fast that it may remain firm and unshaken, so long as Grass shall grow or waters run

Belt of the Covt Chain 15 Rows with human figures at each end.

Bretheren
I persuade myself that you are all sensible of the Benefits which result from our strict Union, & that havg it always before your eyes, you will be careful in preserving it. This will protect you from all dangers, & secure to you the blessings of Peace, and the advantages of Commerce with a people able to supply all your wants. And as this is a consideratn of much importance, which depends on the friendship subsisting between us & a free open and safe Communication for all our people to you, I do now by this Belt clear the Rivers & Paths throughout our respective countries, of all obstructions removing Trees out of our Creeks & Logs Briars & Rubbish out of our Roads, that our Canoes may pass along without danger and that our people may travel freely & securely by night or by day without any risk or impediment whatsoever — And I recommend it to you all to contribute to this good work, & to assist in keeping it free and open to the latest Posterity A Large Belt.

Brethren
Hearken to me who have good words to speak to you, such as are for the benefit of your whole confederacy and of your children yet unborn.

You all remember that three years ago I signified to you His Matys desire to establish a Boundary Line between his people and yours and that we then agreed together how some part of that Line should run, whenever, the same came to be settled

You all, I am hopefull, recollect the Reasons I then gave you for making such a Boundary never the less I shall again repeat them. You know Brethren that the encroachments upon your Lands have been always one of your principal subjects of complaint, and that so far as it could be done endeavors have not been wanting for your obtaining Redress. But it was a difficult Task, and generally unsuccessfull — for altho' the Provinces have bounds between each other, there are no certain Bounds between them & you, And thereby not only several of our people ignorant in Indian Affairs have advanced too far into your country, but also many of your own people through the want of such a Line have been deceived in the Sales they have made or in the limits they have set to our respective claims This, Brethren, is a sad Case, which has frequently given us much trouble, and turned many of your heads; but it is likely to continue so untill some Bounds are agreed to, fixed upon and made public between us. The Great the good King of England my master, whose friendship and tender regard for your Interests I wish you may ever hold in remembrance has amongst other Instances of his Goodness after long deliberation on some means for your releif, and for preventing future disputes concerning Lands, at length resolved upon fixing a general Boundary Line between his subjects and you, and that in such a manner as shall be most agreeable to you, in consequence of which I have received his Royal commands to call you together for the establishment thereof, and after conferring with the Governments interested hereupon, you

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now see before you the Govr of the Jerseys, the Commissioners on behalf of Aseregoa,[1] Govr of Virginia & Commissioners from Pensylvania in order to give you the strongest assurances on behalf of the respective Governments of their Resolutions to pay due regard to what shall be now entered into, the presence of so many great men will give a sanction to the transaction and cause the same to be known as far as the English Name extends — His Majesty has directed me to give you a handsome proof of his Generosity proportiond to the nature and extent of what Lands shall fall to him — Upon the whole I hope that your deliberations will be unanimous & your Resolutions such as His Maty may consider as proofs of your gratitude for all his favors — A fine New Belt.

The Importance of this affair now before us requires the most serious attention. I will not burthen you with any other subject untill this is generally settled, and therefore we shall adjourn, that you may have time to think of it and come fully prepared to give an agreeable answer

Then Abraham Cheif of the Mohawks after repeating what Sir William had said addressed him

Brother
We give you thanks for what you have said to us at this time, it is a weighty affair, and we shall agreeable to your desire take it into our most serious consideration

We are glad that so many great men are assembled to bear witness of the transaction and we are now resolved to retire and consult on a proper answer to be given to all you have said, & so soon as we have agreed upon it, we shall give you notice that we may again assemble, and make it known to you and we are all much obliged to you that you have directed us to attend to this great affair alone at this time that our minds might not be burthened or diverted from it by attending to anything else.

Then Conoghquieson addressed the whole and desired that the several Nations might look towards the Onondagas who would appoint him a time and place for taking the matter into consideration

After which adjourned

P M. Sir William met the Nanticokes with Captain Ogden and explained to them the affair of the Sale of their Lands of which the approved, as well as of the price which [is] 666 Dollars & two thirds — Mr Ogden then delivered an account of his expences which amounted to £ 100.9.9 Curcy so that a balance of 415 Dollars or £ 166.2.3 Currency remains due by said Ogden which he is to pay to the cheif of the Nanticokes as soon as may be and then they are to impower him to dispose of the remainder of their Land in Maryland

Thursday the 27th Deiaquande Cheiftain of the Onondagas with 86 arrived and came immediately to Sir Williams Quarters to pay him the usual compliments which having returned he ordered them paint, Pipes, Tobacco & a dram around and dismissed them

Friday the 28th — The weather being cold Sir William clothed the old cheifs of every Nation for which they returned many thanks & told them that he now enabled them to meet and consider of the Great affair before them with pleasure, and assured him that they would endeavour to do every thing for the best, and that with the utmost expedition — They told Sir William that they were yesterday employed in hearing news brought them by the Shawanese

1. See note 3, [Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Procured in Holland, England and France,] IX, 706. — ED[back]



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and receiving the Belts, that this day they would take into consideration the Boundary Line, and seriously deliberate thereon as they were determined to make it binding

At a Congress with the several Nations on Friday the 28th day of October 1768

PRESENT — as before

The Indians continued in private Council till 4 P. M. when they sent to let Sir William know, that they would be glad to speak with him: being all seated the Speaker addressed Sir William

Brother
We have been for some time deliberating on what you said concerning a Line between the English and us, & we are sensible it would be for our mutual advantage if it were not transgressed, but dayly experience teaches us that we cannot have any great dependance on the white People, and that they will forget their agreements for the sake of our Lands — However you have said so much to us upon it that we are willing to beleive more favorably in this case.

Brother
You remember when we spoke last concerning this Boundary, that we did not agree about the way it should run from Oswegy[1] — This is a point that must now be settled for to what purpose could it be to draw a Line between us & the country of Virginia & Pensylvania whilst the way to our Towns lay open We would therefore know what you intend to propose as a Boundary to the Northward that we take it into consideration and we shall be glad that you explain it fully to us, that no mistake may be made on either side.

To which Sir William answered,

Brothers
I have attended to what you say and do admit that it is reasonable the Line should be closed, & I persuade myself that His Maty will approve of it All these things I had in consideration before, & I recommended the Line to you generally at first according to your own practice as an Introduction to the rest and in order to render the whole clear & plain to you, I have prepared a Map on which the Country is drawn large & plain which will enable us both to judge better of these matters. I would therefore recommend it to you to send the cheifs of each Nation to my Quarters where I shall lay the Map before them & confer with them upon it

The Speaker then thanked Sir William for what he had said which they all greatly approved of, in consequence of which the Cheifs of each Nation came soon after to his Quarters when Sir William laid a Map on the Table & after explaining to them the nature of his orders & the desires of Government he spoke as follows

Brothers
Here is the Map of which I spoke to you, where all that Country which is the subject of our meeting is faithfully laid down. The Line here described between the Kanhawa River & Oswegy1 was what we spoke about — The King has not fixed upon any particular place to

1. Sic. Owegy. — ED [back]



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continue it to It therefore remains for me to obtain a continuation of that Line which will be secure to you and advantageous to us on which subject we now meet — I have likewise to observe to you that the piece of Land in the Forks of Susquehanna is very much desired by the Commissioners from Pensylvania and would be more advantageous to them than to you, besides as it is or will be soon partly surrounded by Settlements it will be a very difficult matter to get any people to go far to the Northward, & leave such Land as it were behind them — I would therefore propose, the Bounds from Fort Pitt be continued up to the Ohio to Moghulbughilum Creek,[1] Thence up that Creek & along the eight mile Carrying Place[2] to the West Branch of Susquehanna thence along that River to the Allegany Ridge. Thence along that Ridge of Mountains to the Cayuga Branch & down the same to the Great East Branch of Susquehanna, from thence up that East Branch to Oswegy,[3] from whence it can be run Eastward to the Delaware River, which is very near it at that Place and for that part of this additional Cession which will fall to Mr Penn, you will receive a large & handsome consideration over and besides His Matys Royal Bounty And as to the continuation of that Line from the Delaware so as to close it, I must desire to hear what yourselves think & I expect that your Resolutions will be advantageous to us, & that you will make proper allowance for the increase of our People whereby you will recommend yourselves to the King, and become so pleasing to his subjects that it will greatly contribute to the due observance of the Boundary Line.

To which the Speaker made the following answer

Brother
We have hearkened to all that you have said and we thank you for your advice which we beleive is well intended — But this is a great Cession of Land which will require much thought and attention and therefore we shall defer the consideration of it till tomorrow

Brother
Before we answer you about the continuation of the Line we must say something to you concerning the extent of it to the Southward which we find is no further than Kanhawa River. Now Brother, you, who know all our affairs, must be sensible that our Rights go much farther to the Southward and that we have a very good & clear Title to the Lands as far as the Cherokee River which we can not allow to be right of any other Indians without doing wrong to our Posterity and acting unworthy those Warriors who fought & conquered it. We therefore expect this our Right will be considered.

Brother
We are now to speak about continuing the Line as you said from Delaware so as to close it, and you recommend it to us to give you plenty for the people

We were formerly generous & gave the white people in many places Lands when they were too poor to buy them. We have often had bad Returns. Nevertheless we would still act generously and mean to do as much as we can without ruining our Children

1. Moghulbuctitum. Scull's Map of Pennsylvania. 'Tis a corruption of the Indian name, Mochulbuctison or Moeholpakison, meaning, "where boats are abandoned" (that is, the head of navigation); from Amokkol, the Delaware word for Boat. Bulletin of Pennsylvania Historical Society, 128. It falls into the Allegany river in Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, and seems to be called, in modern maps, the Mahoning. — ED [back]

2. This carrying place is in the present county of Indiana, Pennsylvania. [back]

3. Sic. Owegy. [back]



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Brother
You know that the country from Oswegy[1] quite to Oswego is full of our Towns & Villages and that it is very dear to us so that we cannot be expected to part with what lies at our Doors, besides your people are come already too close to us. We therefore think that the Line should run up the Delaware to the Swamp & from that run across to the Governors (Cosbys Land) and then go away to Lake George which we can not but think a fair offer

To which Sir Wm answered

Brothers
We have heard what you said and shall answer it. In the first place I acknowledge to have heard of your claim to the Southward before this time The King does not deny your claims He is not thoroughly acquainted with the exact extent of them and finding that they may be liable to some dispute with the Southern Indians, he being an enemy to strife directed the Line to be run in the manner he thought least liable to it. But of this I shall take further notice to you having no[w] to speak to you in answer to the course you have proposed for continuing the Line from Delaware

Brothers
I know very well how you are situated and it is not His Majestys inclination to disturb you therein, at the same time you should consider what is reasonable on your parts and that the Lands are even patented further than you propose the Line, and that the more people are confined the more readily will the transgress the bounds so that I must desire you to think the better of it and speak more favorably at our next meeting, till when I shall propose nothing further, as I could not consistently propose any other Line than such as would bring us to or near Lake Ontario.

They then withdrew taking with them a Map in order to consider the affair in private.

At night Sir William had a private conference with the Cheifs of the most Influence with whom he made use of every argument to bring matters to an agreeable issue

Saturday Oct 29th

The Indians continued in Council all the forenoon the Cheifs having given the Belts to the Warriors for their opinion concerning the Boundary; several of the Indians particularly the Oneidas gave great obstruction to the business, and Sir William heard that a clergyman sent by Mr Wheelock from New England who had delivered him a memorial on the 14th instant "praying that the Line might not be extended far North or West but the Lands reserved for the purposes of Religion" was very busy amongst the Indians for that purpose.[2] Information was likewise given to Sir William this morning that this Clergyman had in conversations with Coll Fitch Mr Peters junior and others told them that he had done what he could to opose the Cession of Territory, and would continue to obstruct it to the utmost of his Power, and that he had shewed the Indians the folly of giving up their Lands & cautioned them against it before he left Oneida

Sir William this day cloathed several of the Cheifs with whom he had several conferences the Majority of them continued in Council together to consider farther on the speeches made

1. Sic. Owegy. [back]

2. See New York Documentary History, 8VO., IV., 388–398, for papers illustrative of the matters here referred to. — ED [back]



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to them in the afternoon the Onondaga & Mohock Cheifs with several others waited on Sir William with a Message from the whole, importing that as it was a very weighty & interesting affair it required some further consideration they therefore requested that he and the Gentlemen with him would wait with patience till monday morning when they hoped to be able to give an answer

Sir William told them that he was really become very impatient through the delays which was given to business, that the security of their Lands depended upon their despatch and the freedom of the Cession — That he would however wait till Monday, when he hoped to hear from them some thing that might make up for their delays

At night several of the Cheifs came to Sir Williams Quarters to let him know the purport of Intelligence and Belts received from the Shawanese, which was that according to the old agreement subsisting between the several Indian Nations, they were all to unite and attack the English as soon as the latter became formidable to them. That several of the Nations to the South and West greatly alarmed at the Power and increase of the English and irritated at the ill treatment they had met with had expressed a desire to meet the rest to deliberate on what was to be done. That the Spaniards & French had for a long time urged them to take up arms and given them repeated assurances of a powerfull assistance That they had now called them to a meeting at the Mississippi near the mouth of the Ohio for that purpose. That they had sent many Belts among the Indians, a great part of whom were just ready to set out when Sir Williams message came to them, and that they waited the event of the Treaty at Fort Stanwix before they would come to any further resolution with a variety of other particulars all tending to corroberate the former Intelligence received by Sir William Johnson

In the morning the Indians again met in Council, when the Warriors came and laid before their Sachems the result of their deliberations yesterday concerning the Northern part of the Line who directed four of their Sachems viz Tyaruruante, Ganaquieson, Tyeransera,[1] and Tagawaron to wait on Sir William and communicate the same which was, that the Line should run from Oriscany to Tianderhah,[2] and down that River to the Susquehanna, thence in a straight Line to the Hills, and so to the Delaware Branch & down the same to Oswegy,[3] thence down the Susquehanna to Shamokin, and so along the West Branch of that River to Kittanning declaring they would not part with any Lands to the Westward of Oriscany or down towards Wioming or the Great Island, as they reserved that part of the Country for their Dependants.

But Sir William finding that some busy persons had been alarming those Nations most immediately affected by the Line, and that many others could be induced to settle it more advantageously he in a long and warm speech to the Cheifs shewed them that the Line was not proposed to injure them, but that for a handsome consideration it was intended to obtain a Cession of as much Land as would give the people Room on the Frontiers ascertaing the Boundary at the same time between them — that with the help of proper Laws it would not be liable to intrusion — that the Line proposed at Oriscany interfered with a patent granted above sixty years ago now in possession of some Gentlemen at New York the Indian Deed for which, he had before shewn them That these Gentlemen and all others concerned would have reason to blame him for agreeing to lines so injurious to their Rights, and that the continuance of a line from thence in the manner that they proposed would in many places approach so near to our settlements, as to render its duration very uncertain from the great increase of our

1. See Note, [Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Procured in Holland, England and France,] III, 453. [back]

2. Now called the Unadilla, agreeably to the softer Oneida dialect. [back]

3. Sic. Owegy. — ED [back]



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people, whereas by giving them more room the Boundary would be so well known, and secured by Laws before there would be occasion to invade it, that people would act with extreem caution and rather go to other unsettled parts than attempt to transgress an agreement so well defended — That it had been long in agitation and was now according to their own desires ordered by His Majesty to be settled, as the surest means of putting and end to Land Disputes, and that if they rejected this opportunity now offered them and drew the Line so as to interfere with Grants, or approach allmost to our settlements, he could not see that any thing more effectual could thereafter be proposed for preventing encroachments, and the Crown after being already at a very heavy expense on this occasion must find its good intentions and reasonable proposals totally defeated. He therefore recommended it to them to consider this point farther, and as his Majestys Bounty, or that of the Colonys would be proportioned to the extent of their Cession, a rule which he should observe upon this occasion — That he hoped for a more favorable Answer as it would be more to their immediate advantage and would tend to the better observance of the Line hereafter. After these and many other arguments, & farther explaining the several courses laid down on the draft, they agreed to take the Map back to their Council Hutt for farther consideration, promising to use their Interest with the rest for a more favorable Line then withdrew Sir William assuring them at parting that they should be particularly rewarded for their services or endeavours to shew the Indians the reasonableness of the requisition.

At night Tagawaron returned with the Map to Sir William, informed him that they were then debating on the subject but much divided in opinion, and added that he thought his Nation disagreeably circumstanced the rest having thrown so much of the transaction to the Northward on their hands, nevertheless he would do all he could to obtain a more favorable settlement

After which Sir William had many other private conferences which occupied a great part of the night — In particular Six Cheifs of the Oneidas, came to him at nine of the clock at night and they very much doubted the validity of the purchase above Orisca — But through Sr Williams solicitations and to shew their good disposition towards compleating the work in hand, they would agree that the Line should run from the Susquehanna North across at Fort Newport near Fort Stanwix where the Boats are launched, and from thence to the Northwest corner of the late purchase for Lord Holland & others — Sir William thanked them for the Amendments but told them that he could not think it would answer, that it did not even include the carrying place, and therefore desired them again to consider the matter and that as they could extend it much farther to the westward without any sensible inconvenience, he expected they would do so, for which their Nation, over and besides the rest should have five hundred Dollars & a handsome present for each of the cheifs. — They promised to use their best endeavours for that purpose & withdrew
Monday. Oct 31st

At 10 A M. The Oneidas returned to Sir Williams Quarters, and told him that their people possitively refused to agree to any other Line than they had proposed the last night, & that as Game began to grow scarce in their neighbourhood, they had come to a Resolution to keep the carrying Place to the Canada Creek in their hands, as by keeping Horses and Carriages there as they proposed to do for the future to carry over the Traders Goods, they might earn

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somewhat for the support of their families. Sir William answered that he thought it somewhat extraordinary that they should enter into such a Resolution on the sudden having totally neglected carrying goods for so many years — That if they gave it up they might still reap benefits from a high road open to all provided they had horses & Carriages as reasonable as other people, but that their keeping it to themselves would occasion many disputes between them and the white people, which His Maty was so very desirous of preventing and had fallen upon the Boundary as the means of doing so. That they should not stop at what was but a Trifle to them, tho' so advantageous & necessary to the English and that he wished they would so act as to shew their love and respect for the King & friendship for his Subjects — That the Governor and People of New York had reason to expect much more from them and that they had left it to him to urge these matters to them as thinking Commissioners unnecessary when he was to conduct the Congress. He hoped that this would be a farther consideration and desired them to act a part proper on the Occasion

The thereupon withdrew to consult further upon it. They shortly after returned and said that Sir William had been so desirous to have the Bounds further extended the last and only thing they could say was, that provided they were allowed an equal use of the carrying Place with the English and to be paid Six Hundred Dollars to the Tribes over and besides the several Fees which were given in private, they should extend the Line to Canada Creek Sir William finding it best not to urge this matter farther told them that he acquiesced for the present leaving it to be confirmed or rejected by His Majesty They answered that they considered and unanimously resolved that whatever Boundary Line was now agreed to should be for ever binding & conclusive on both sides — That no province should on any pretence invade the Line and that whatever transaction might thereafter be necessary should be with the King or those by him directed to treat with them.

A Messenger then arrived to call them to attend the consultation about the rest of the line

At night Canaquieson came to inform Sir William that they had further considered the general subject of the Line & would send a cheif & Warrior from each Nation with their final resolves which they would deliver in public the next day - They accordingly came to Sir Williams Quarters, when Sir William told them, he hoped they were now come with such an answer as would be pleasing to all Parties. The Map being then laid before them, they said, that what they had to say was the final resolves of all the Nations, then said at the same time, tracing it on the Map that they would agreeable to their just Claims begin the Line at the mouth of the Cherokee River, then go along to the South East side of the Ohio to Kittanning, from thence to the Head of the West Branch of Susquehanna thence down the same to Bald Eagle Creek thence across the River at Tiadaghta Creek below the great Island, thence by a straight Line to Burnett's Hills and along the same to the mouth of Awanda Creek on the West Side of the East Branch of Susquehanna, thence up the stream thereof to Oswegy,[1] thence Eastward to the Delaware River, thence up the stream thereof till they come opposite to the mouth of Tianaderah Creek emptying into Susquehanna, thence up the West side of Tianaderrah to the head of its Westerly Branch, and from thence to the mouth of Canada Creek on Wood Creek.

This they delivered as their final determinations subject to several conditions for the security of their possessions and engagements entered into, and for that part which would fall

1. Sic. Owegy. — ED[back]



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within Mr Penns Govt they insisted on having 10,000 Dollars Sir William told them he would take the matter into consideration and would assemble them all tomorrow and after parting conferred with the Commissioners of Pensilvania concerning the same who approvd it, and agreed to the consideration on behalf of the Proprietors.

At a General Congress with the several Nations at Fort Stanwix Tuesday Nov 1st 1768


PRESENT — as at the former Meetings

Being all seated they desired to know whether Sir William was prepared to hear them, and on being answered in the affirmative, the speaker stood up and spoke as follows

Brother
We are hopefull that you will not take it amiss that we have delayed till now our public answer on the subject you recommended to us, This was a great and weighty matter requiring long deliberation, and should not be undertaken lightly — We have accordingly considered it, and are now come to give you our final resolutions thereon, to which we beg your attention

Brother
We remember that on our first Meeting with you, when you came with your ship we kindly received you, entertained you, entered into an alliance with you, though we were then great & numerous and your people inconsiderable and week and we know that we entered into a Covenant Chain with you and fastened your ship therewith, but being apprehensive the Bark would break and your ship be lost we made one of iron, and held it fast that it should not slip from us, but perceiving the former chain was liable to rust; We made a silver chain to guard against it Then, Brother, you arose, renewed that chain which began to look dull, and have for many years taken care of our affairs by the command of the Great King, & you by your labors have polished that chain so that it has looked bright and is become known to all Nations, for all which we shall ever regard you and we are thankfull to you in that you have taken such care of these great affairs of which we are allways mindfull, and we do now on our parts renew and strengthen the Covenant Chain by which we will abide so long as you shall preserve it strong & bright on your part. A Belt.

Brother
We are glad that you have opened the River and cleared the Roads as it is so necessary to us both. We were promisd that when the war was over, we should have Trade in plenty, Goods cheap and honest men to deal with us and that we should have proper persons to manage all this. We hope that these promises will never be forgot but that they will be fully performed that we shall feel the benefits of an intercourse between us — that the Roads and waters may be free and open to us all to go to the Southward, or for our friends from thence with whom we are now at peace to visit us, that we may have proper persons in our Countrys to manage affairs and smiths to mend our arms and implements — and in the expectation of this, we do, now on our parts open the Roads and waters, and promise to assist in keeping them so. A Belt.

Then after repeating all that had been said concerning the Line proceeded


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Brother
We have long considered this proposal for a Boundary between us, and we think it will be of good consequence if you on your parts pay due regard to it, and we in consequence thereof have had sundry Meetings amongst ourselves and with you and from all that you have said to us thereon, we have at length come to a final resolution concerning it, and we hope that what is now agreed upon shall be inviolably observed on your parts as we are determined it shall be on ours and that no further attempts shall be made on our Lands but that this Line, be considered as final and we do now agree to the Line we have marked upon your Map, now before you on certain conditions on which we have spoken and shall say more and we desire that one Article of this our agreement be, that none of the Provinces or their People shall attempt to invade it under color of any old Deeds, or other pretences what soever for in many of these things we have been imposed on, and therefore we disclaim them all, which Bounds now agreed to we begin on the Ohio at the mouth of the Cherokee River[1] which is now our just right, and from thence we give up on the South side of Ohio to Kittanning above Fort Pitt, from thence a direct Line to the nearest Fork of the West Branch of Susquehanna thence through the Allegany Mountains along the south side of the said West Branch till we come opposite to the mouth of the Creek called Tiadaghton thence across the Nest Branch & along the East side of that Creek and along the ridge of Burnets Hills to a Creek called Awandae thence down the same to the East Branch of the Susquehanna, and across the same and up the East side of that River to Oswegy, from thence Eastward to Delaware River, and up that River to opposite where Trinaderha falls into Susquehanna, thence to Trienaderha and up the West side thereof and its West Branches to the Head thereof thence by a straight Line to the mouth of Canada Creek where it emptys itself into Wood Creek at the end of the long carrying place beyond Fort Stanwix, and this we declare to be our final Resolves and we expect that the conditions of this our Grant will be observed A Belt.

Brother
Now as we have made so large a Cession to the King of such a valuable and Extensive Country, We do expect it as the Terms of our Agreement that strict regard be paid to all our reasonable desires — We do now on this on behalf and in the name of all our Warriors of every Nation, condition that all our Warriors shall have the liberty of hunting throughout the Country as they have no other means of subsistance and as your people have not the same occasions or inclinations — That the White people be restricted from hunting on our side of the Line to prevent contensions between us A Belt.

Brother
By this Belt we address ourselves to the Great King of England through You our superintendant in the Name and in behalf of all the Six Nations Shawanese, Delawares and all other our Friends, Allies, & Dependants, We now tell the King that we have given to him a great and valuable Country, and we know that what we shall now get for it must be far short of its value — We make it a condition of this our Agreemt concerning the Line that His Majesty will not forget or neglect to show us His favor or suffer the Chain to contract Rust, but that he will direct those who have the management of our affairs to be punctual in renewing our antient agreements. That as the Mohocks are now within the Line which we give to the

1. Now called the Tennessee. Ramsey. — ED [back]



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King, and that these people are the true old heads of the whole confederacy their several villages and all the Land they occupy unpatented, about them as also the Residences of any others in our confederacy affected by this Cession shall be considered as their sole property and at their disposal both now, and so long as the sun shines, and that all grants or engagements they have now or lately entered into, shall be considered as independent of this Boundary so that they who have so little left may not lose the benefit of the sale of it, but that the people, with whom they have agreed, may have the Land — We likewise further condition on behalf of all the Six Nations and of all our allies, friends & Nephews our Dependants that as we have experienced how difficult it is to get justice or to make our complaints known and that it is not in the power of our Superintendant to take care of our affairs in different Places without the Kings help that His Majesty will give him help & strength to do us justice and to manage our affairs in a proper manner. We all know the want of this, and we make it a point of great consequence on which this our present Agreement is to depend and without which Affairs will go wrong and our heads may be turned.

Brother
We likewise desire that as we have now given up a great deal of Lands within the Bounds that Mr Penn claimed a right of buying that he may in consequence of the agreement now entered into between us, enjoy what we have given within them Limits. And as we know that Lydius of Albany did in the name of several persons lay claim to Lands in Pennsylvania, which we know to be unjust, and that the Deeds he pretends a right to were invalid, We expect that no regard will be paid to them or any such claims now or hereafter, as we have fairly sold them to the proprietors of Pensylvania to whom alone we shall sell Lands within that Province, and we shall now give them a Deed for that & other Lands there. And in order to shew that we love justice, we expect the Traders who suffered by some of our dependants in the wars five years ago, may have a grant for the Lands we now give them down Ohio, as a satisfaction for their losses, and as our friend Mr Croghan[1] long ago got a Deed for Lands from us, which may now be taken into Mr Penns Lands, should it so happen, we request that it may be considered and get as much from the King somewhere else, as he fairly bought it. — And as we have given enough to shew our Love for the King and make his people easy, in the next place we expect that no old claims which we disavow or new encroachments may be allowed of

Brother,
We have now gone through this matter and we have shewn ourselves ready to give the King whatever we could reasonably spare. We on our parts express our regard for him and we hope for His favor in return. — Our words are strong and our resolutions firm & we expect that our request will be complied with in so much as we have so generously complied with all that has been desired as far as was consistent with our Existence A Belt.

Sir William then thanked them for what they had said, and assured them that it should all be considered, and that he would meet them tomorrow on these and other subjects. Then adjourned

1. See note, [Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Procured in Holland, England and France,] VII., 982. — ED [back]



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Wednesday November the 2d

The day being very rainy the Indians did not meet in Council.

Sir William cloathed a number of cheifs and Cheiftains of several Nations and was this day busy in preparing the necessary Papers for the Next Meeting

P. M. Sir William met the Mohocks and other cheifs and endeavoured to persuade them to extend the Line more favorably to the West of New York observg that they could not agree to extend it further down the Wood Creek on the South side that he expected they would let it run below the Canada Creek, on the North side of Wood Creek, but finding them determined and that they were for closing it at the point of the last purchase near the Mohock River, he told them he would stop at the Mouth of Canada Creek & refer the remainder to His Matys consideration

Sir William then acquainted the Cheifs that his Excellency the Commander in cheif purposed to evacuate Fort Ontario, or to put it on the same footing with Fort Stanwix, as a measure that would be agreeable to them, and that as for any forts, which it was necessary still to keep up, they could be no inconvenience to them They answered that they had nothing to complain of against the keeping up Ontario, on the footing it was for some time past nor would they make any difficulty about the others whilst they were civilly treated at them, and no encroachments made on their Lands which Sir William promisd should be duly attended to.

Thursday November the 3d

This day was partly employed in preparg the several Speeches &, the Deed of Cession

P. M. A Deputation from the Aghquessaine Indians came to Sir Williams Quarters accompanied by the Oneida chiefs whose interposition with him had been requested in order to accommodate the unhappy difference which had gone such lengths in their village that their Preist and many of their people would likely be murthered A Belt.

Sir William answered them that he had been extreemly concerned to hear of that difference amongst themselves that in consequence thereof he had directed Coll Claus the Deputy Agent for that Quarter to enquire into the particulars & to put a stop to it, and that he now had the pleasure to acquaint them that agreeable to His orders the whole was happily determined before Coll Claus left Montreal which account gave them all great satisfaction A Belt.

At a Congress with the several Nations Friday November 4th

PRESENT — as at the last Meeting

The Onondaga Speaker performed the Ceremony of Condolence, for a loss sustained by the Oneidas after which Sir William addressed the several Nations

Brothers
After having duly considered your speech and the Agreement you have at length come into, I am pleased to find that you have so far dispatched business Notwithstanding the severity of the approachg season, and the distance which many of us are from our dwellings. I gave you all the time necessary for bringing this weighty affair to a deliberate conclusion


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Brother
I am glad to find that you remember your old agreements so particularly and I wish you may always observe them, and with that view I should have been glad to have heard you confine your answer to my Belt for keeping the Roads open, to that subject alone, as a free and safe intercourse between us is so necessary to you

The promises formerly made you of the happy change which would be produced by the Reduction of Canada you have in many respects experienced as far as it was in the power of his Majestys Servants you likewise have had a considerable number of Traders amongst you which has so far lowered the Prices of Goods that several of them are become Bankrupts and at many of the Posts they are to be bought at as low rates as at our Towns Notwithstanding the distance and expence of Transportation. I am to inform you that it has been judged adviseable by the Government to commit that part of business regarding the management of the Indian Trade to the care & charge of the several Colonies who I make no doubt will endeavour to do every thing they can for your interest A Belt.

You have of late made several complaints on account of the ill behaviour of some people on the Frontiers; those that regarded Pennsylvania, I have reason to think I finally settled and gave a handsome portion of their bounty upon the occasion, and in consequence of the information I gave the Governor of Virginia thereon, his Assembly passed several Votes in your favour, which are now before me, whilst the Governor sent this assurance of their good faith and friendship for you and of their intentions to prevent you from being ill treated

Here showed and explained the Resolves of the House of Burgesses likewise a paper under the Great Seal of the Province of Virginia authorizing Sir William to give to them those favorable assurances. and proceeds

Brothers
I hope all this will convince you that they are your friends and as further proof of it the Gentlemen Commrs from those Provinces will at their return take proper measures for your future good treatment & for the due observance of the Boundary Line by proper Laws for these purposes, according his Matys desires which I shall recommend to their remembrance A belt.

Brothers
I am glad the Boundary is at length agreed upon, & as I have great reason to think it will be duly observed by the English. I recommend it to you to preserve it carefully in remembrance to explain it fully to those that are absent and to teach it to your children. This Boundary is intended to be lasting but should it be found necessary by His Majesty or yourselves to make any future additions or alterations he will treat with you by those who have the management of your affairs. And never permit any private application this I have received in command to tell you

As to the several reservations you make in your Cession to the King and the other points you recommend you may be assured that His Maty shall be made acquainted with them, as I shall transmit to him a copy of our transactions at this place & I may venture to assure you that they will meet with all possible regard from a Prince of His clemency & Justice & I now give you this Belt to strengthen ratify and confirm the Boundary to all transactions necessary thereto. A Belt.


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Brothers
The speech which you addressed particularly to His Maty shall be faithfully transmitted to him with the rest of your proceedings. I have attended to the whole of it & I persuade myself that every reasonable article will be taken proper notice of & that he will take such measures as to him shall seem best for your benefit and for the rendering you justice — I likewise consider your good intentions towards the Traders who sustained the losses & your desire to fulfill all your other engagements as instances of your integrity. I wish that you may on your parts carefully remember & faithfully observe the Engagements you have now as well as formerly entered into with the English, and that you may every day grow more sensible how much it is your Interest to do so And I once more exhort you all to be strong and stedfast to keep firm hold of the Covenant Chain & never to give attention or credit to People who under the Masque of friendship should come amongst you with stories which may tend to weaken your attachment to us, but to keep your eye stedfastly on those whose business & inclination it is to tell you truth & make your minds easy A Belt.

Brothers the Shawanese & Delawares
I now particularly address you, in that you live far to the Southward, & may at some times be disturbed by bad men who taking advantage of our distance from us & the Heads of the Confederacy may by Belts Messages or Stories invented to create mischeif impose on many of your people & through their means mislead other Nations I am not ignorant that this has happened & I have good intelligence that there are people who have been lately deceiving some of you with stories of Revolutions in American affairs & of French Fleets & armies, with which you have been so often deceived that I wonder any of your people should credit them — Be assured, Brothers, that those who were able to conquer Canada, & drive their enemies out of their country, will always have it in their power to defeat their future projects should they be weak enough to make any future attempts to regain what they lost. I do therefore exhort you by this Belt to pay no regard to such deceivers for the future, but continue to live peaceably & let me know who they are, & from whence that attempt to impose upon you. I likewise desire you to remember all your engagements with the English to observe the treaty of Peace with the Cherokees, to avoid any irregularities on the Frontiers & pay due regard to the Boundary Line now made, & to make all your People acquainted with it, & to keep the Roads & Waters open and free whereby you will enjoy the benefits of Peace & Commerce, the esteem of the King of Great Britain & the friendship of all his subjects & I desire you will remember & often repeat my words A Belt.

Brothers the Indians of Canada
With this Belt I recommend it to you to remember what has been done at this & all former Treaties and to make the same public among all your people on your return to Canada recommending it to them to continue to promote peace and to discountenance all evil reports & idle Stories which may be propagated by ignorant or bad men & to communicate all usefull intelligence to me from time to time as a proof of your regard for your engagements & a means of recommending yourselves to the esteem of the King and people of England. A belt.

Brothers of the sevl Nations here Assembled
The Govr of New Jersey being called hence by some urgent business has desired me to inform you that he can not think of taking leave of His Brethren the Six Nations without once more

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expressing the Happiness he has received from finding that they entertain such right sentiments of his justice, & that of the good people under his Government He has himself the highest sense of the value & importance of the name conferred on him & doubts not but that future Governors & the cheif men & inhabitants of New Jersey will be ever carefull to deserve so distinguished a Title among the Indian Nations as that of Sagorrihwhioughstha [1] Doer of Justice

The Governor has likewise requested me to remind you that at a Treaty held at Easton in the year 1758 the Delawares and other Indians who had any pretensions to Land in New Jersey, did for a valuable consideration give a general release for all the Lands in that Province except such parts as were reserved by Law for the use of those Indians who chose to live under the protection of that Governmt. This was done in public Council in the presence of many of the Six Nations and the Governor would therefore be glad, that at this Congress (where are present so many cheifs of the different Nations belonging to the Confederacy & when a general Boundary Line between the subjects of His Brittannic Majesty in America & their Bretheren the Indians is to be settled) you would do the Province of New Jersey the justice to confirm the said Release by acknowledging in public that that Province is entirely free from all Indian Claims, except as before mentd His Reason for this request is that this matter may held in remembrance by all the nations present & by that means be more surely handed down to their Posterity A Belt.

Brothers
In consequence of a Belt I have just received from the Senecas which I formerly gave them to bind them together I do now think it highly necessary with this Belt to bind you all together recommendg it to you all to avoid wandering and to continue at your several villages after the manner of your ancestors, I do this principally for your own advantage, convinced that you will be weakened by rambling and that your Councils and opinions will be thereby disunited — Take therefore my advice and do not suffer yourselves to be lead away with any imaginary prospects of advantage by scattering, but continue by this Belt in your several places of abode following your commerce and all peaceable pursuits A Large Black Belt

Brothers
The business of the Treaty being so far happily brought to a conclusion it only remains that you execute a deed of Cession to His Majesty & whatever else is necessary on this occasion, after which I shall deliver over to your People the large Present, together with the Sum of Money the amount and value of which I have already explained to you — The Govrs and Gentlemen Commrs from the sevl Governmts are sensible of your good conduct during the Treaty, and I shall recommend what is necessary to them in your presence for its further security & on the part of New York I take upon myself to promise you that every thing necessary thereto shall be recommended and I make no doubt agreed to by the Legislature of this Province, heartily wishing that the same may on your parts be as carefully observed & that no disputes may hereafter arise concerning any part of the Cession you have made or the engagements you have entered into at this time.

Then Sir William addressed the Govr of New Jersey & the Commissioners

1. supra, p. 117. — ED[back]



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Gentlemen
Agreeable to His Matys intentions signified to me by the secretary of State and for the satisfaction of the several Nations here assembled I take the liberty to recommend it strongly to your several Provinces to enact the most effectual Laws for the due observance of this Line & the preventing all future intrusions, as the expectations thereof and the reliance the Indians have on your Justice from the Assurances I gave them on that head have proved great inducements to the settlement of the Line now established between the Colonies and them

To this the Governors & Commissioners answered that nothing should be wanting on their parts to the obtaining such security for the Boundary as was deemed necessary on their return to their respective Colonies

Then Sir William at the desire of the Gentlemen Commissioners from Pensylvania acquainted the Indians, that they the Commissioners had a present ready to the amount of 500 Dollars to give in full satisfaction of the Conostoga Lands, which by the death of that People became vested in the Proprietaries — That they freely gave this sum as a farther Proof of the regard of that Province for them and of their concern for the unhappy fate of the Conostogas. Then Sir William told the Indians, that as the proprietaries did not know whether they would chuse money or Goods for the addition of Land to Pensylvania they were then unprovided, but that Sir William Johnson would be answerable for the speedy payment of the purchase, & would propose to them either to receive it in money to be sent on the Comrs return or in goods speedy as possible or to wait till the next spring by which time they could have goods better & more for the same money from England which was submitted to their determination

As it grew late Sir William dismissed the Indians till the next day when they were to subscribe to the Deed of Cession & receive the consideration

At night the cheifs came to Sir William told him that they had considered the proposals made by the Commissioners of Pensylvania, & preferred the receiving the purchase in Cash, as the speediest payment which was agreed to & security given that the same should be paid in Six Weeks
Novr 5th

The Present being placed in public view around the Buildings within the Fort early this morning the whole assembled in the Area, to subscribe to the Deed & receive the consideration
At a Congress with the several Nations Saturday Nov 5

PRESENT — as before.

The Speaker after repeating what Sir had said to them on the first Belt at the last Congress said

Brother
We thank you for what you have said & we are hopeful that you will observe your engagements as we mean to do on our parts; but as this will in a great measure depend upon the Colonies, We now desire their Representatives here present to do every thing for preserving those engagemts and keeping their people in good order A Belt.


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Then repeating what was said on the second Belt, said

Brother
We thank you for the advice you have given us not to listen to evil reports or lies.

Brother
We approve of your caution and shall observe it, and we shall from time to time give us[1] the the earliest intelligence of any such Reports & from whence they come A Belt.

Then in answer to Govr Francklin's Speech

Brother
We are glad to see that Governor Francklin is so well pleased with our having bestowed one of our own names upon him & are well pleased [to] hear you promise that he will always be ready to do us justice We hope that all future Governors will act the same part. We acknowledge that several of our Nations now present were witnesses to the transaction at Easton & therefore acquit that Province of any demand and we have only to desire of him to follow your example in his future Conduct towards us, which will sufficiently recommend him and his people to our esteem A Belt

Brother
The advice you gave us yesterday to continue firm and united and to live together as formerly we think it very salutary and intended for our Good. We are therefore intended to follow your advice shall lodge your Belt at our Fire place at Onondaga to the end that all our confederacy may have recourse to it & act accordingly

The Deed to His Majesty, that to the Proprietors of Pensylvania, with that to the Traders being then laid on the Table were executed in the presence of the Govr Commissioners, & the rest of the Gentlemen

After which the Cheifs of each Nation received the Cash which was piled on a Table for that purpose and then proceeded to divide the Goods amongst their People which occupied the remainder of that day

P M The Governor & Commissioners took leave and returned to their respive Provinces and that night Sir William took leave of the Cheifs recommending it to them to remember what had been then transacted & cautioning them against committing any Disorders at their Departure but to pack up their Goods & return home in peace & Good Order

Sunday Nov 6th

The Indians began to decamp & Sir William sett off on his return for Johnston Hall where he arrived on the ninth of that Month

A True Copy examined by
G JOHNSON Deputy Agent as Secretary.

1. Sic. — ED[back]



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Deed Determining the Boundary Line between the Whites and the Indians

[Plantations General, Vol., 30, V.S.]

To all to whom, These presents shall come or may concern. We the Sachems & Cheifs of the Six confederate Nations, and of the Shawanese, Delawares, Mingoes of Ohio and other Dependant Tribes on behalf of our selves and of the rest of our Several Nations the Cheifs & Warriors of whom are now here convened by Sir William Johnson Baronet His Majestys Superintendant of our affairs send GREETING.

WHEREAS His Majesty was graciously pleased to propose to us in the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty five that a Boundary Line should be fixed between the English & us to ascertain & establish our Limitts and prevent those intrusions & encroachments of which we had so long and loudly complained and to put a stop to the many fraudulent advantages which had been so often taken of us in Land affairs which Boundary appearing to us a wise and good measure we did then agree to a part of a Line and promised to settle the whole finally when soever Sir William Johnson should be fully empowered to treat with us for that purpose

AND WHEREAS His said Majesty has at length given Sir William Johnson orders to compleat the said Boundary Line between the Provinces and Indians in conformity to which orders Sir William Johnson has convened the Cheifs & Warriors of our respective Nations who are the true and absolute Proprietors of the Lands in question and who are here now to a very considerable Number.

AND WHEREAS many uneasinesses and doubts have arisen amongst us which have given rise to an apprehension that the Line may not be strictly observed on the part of the English in which case matters may be worse than before which apprehension together with the dependant state of some of our Tribes and other circumstances which retarded the Settlement and became the subject of some Debate Sir William Johnson has at length so far satisfied us upon as to induce us to come to an agreement concerning the Line which is now brought to a conclusion the whole being fully explained to us in a large Assembly of our People before Sir William Johnson and in the presence of His Excellency the Governor of New Jersey the Commissioners from the Provinces of Virginia and Pensilvania and sundry other Gentlemen by which Line so agreed upon a considerable Tract of Country along several Provinces is by us ceded to His said Majesty which we are induced to and do hereby ratify & confirm to His said Majesty from the expectation and confidence we place in His royal Goodness that he will graciously comply with our humble requests as the same are expressed in the speech of the several Nations addressed to His Majesty through Sir William Johnson on Tuesday the first of the Present Month of November wherein we have declared our expectation of the continuance of His Majestys Favour and our desire that our ancient Engagements be observed and our affairs attended to by the officer who has the management thereof enabling him to discharge all these matters properly for our Interest. That the Lands occupied by the Mohocks around their villages as well as by any other Nation affected by this our Cession may effectually remain to them and to their Posterity and that any engagements regarding Property which they may now be under may be prosecuted and our present Grants deemed valid on our parts with the several other humble requests contained in our said Speech

AND WHEREAS at the settling of the said Line it appeared that the Line described by His Majestys order was not extended to the Northward of Oswegy or to the Southward of Great Kanhawa river We have agreed to and continued the Line to the Northward on a supposition that it was omitted by reason of our not having

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come to any determination concerning its course at the Congress held in one thousand seven hundred and sixty five and in as much as the Line to the Northward became the most necessary of any for preventing encroachments at our very Towns & Residences We have given the Line more favorably to Pensylvania for the reasons & considerations mentioned in the Treaty, we have likewise continued it South to Cherokee River because the same is and we do declare it to be our true Bounds with the Southern Indians and that we have an undoubted right to the Country as far South as that River which makes our Cession to His Majesty much more advantageous than that proposed,

Now THEREFORE KNOW YE that we the Sachems and Cheifs aforementioned Native Indians and Proprietors of the Lands herein after described for and in behalf of ourselves and the whole of our Confederacy for the considerations herein before mentioned and also for and in consideration of a valuable Present of the several articles in use amongst Indians which together with a large sums of money amounts in the whole to the sum of Ten thousand four Hundred and Sixty pounds seven shillings and three pence sterling to us now delivered and paid by Sir William Johnson Baronet His Majestys sole Agent and superintendant of Indian affairs for the Northern department of America in the Name and on behalf of our Soverreign Lord George the third by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith the receipt whereof we do hereby acknowledge WE the said Indians HAVE for us and our Heirs and Successors granted bargained sold released and confirmed and by these presents DO Grant bargain sell release and confirm unto our said Sovereign Lord King George the third, ALL that Tract of Land situate in North America at the Back of the British Settlements bounded by a Line which we have now agreed upon and do hereby establish as the Boundary between us and the British Colonies in America beginning at the Mouth of Cherokee or Hogohege River where it emptys into the River Ohio and running from thence upwards along the South side of said River to Kittaning which is above Fort Pitt from thence by a direct Line to the nearest Fork of the west branch of Susquehanna thence through the Allegany Mountains along the South side of the said West Branch untill it comes opposite to the mouth of a Creek callek Tiadaghton thence across the West Branch and along the South Side of that Creek and along the North Side of Burnetts Hills to a Creek called Awandae thence down the same to the East Branch of Susquehanna and across the same and up the East side of that River to Oswegy from thence East to Delawar River and up that River to opposite where Tianaderha falls into Susquehanna thence to Tianaderha and up the West side of its West Branch to the head thereof and thence by a direct Line to Canada Creek where it emptys into the wood Creek at the West of the Carrying Place beyond Fort Stanwix and extending Eastward from every part of the said Line as far as the Lands formerly purchased so as to comprehend the whole of the Lands between the said Line and the purchased Lands or settlements, except what is within the Province of Pensilvania, together with all the Hereditaments and Appurtenances to the same belonging or appertaining in the fullest & most ample manner and all the Estate Right Title Interest Property Possession Benefit claim and Demand either in Law or Equity of each & every of us of in or to the same or any part thereof TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the whole Lands and Premises hereby granted bargained sold released and confirmed as aforesaid with the Hereditaments and appurtenances thereunto belonging under the reservations made in the Treaty unto our said Sovereign Lord King George the third his Heirs & Successors to and for his and their own proper use and

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behoof for ever

In WITNESS whereof We the Cheifs of the Confederacy have hereunto set our marks and Seals at FORT STANWIX the fifth day of November one Thousand seven hundred and sixty eight in the ninth year of His Majestys Reign

for the Mohocks
TYORHANSERE als ABRAHAM

for the Oneidas
CANAGHQUIESON

for the Tuscaroras
SEQUARUSERA

for the Onondagas
OTSINOGHIYATA als BUNT

for the Cayugas
TEGAAIA

for the Senecas
GUASTRAX

Sealed and delivered and the consideration paid in the presence of
Wm Franklin Governor of New Jersey
Fre. Smyth Cheif Justice of New Jersey
Thomas Walker Commissioner for Virginia

Of the Council of Pensylvania
Richard Peters
James Tilghman

The above Deed was executed in my presence at Fort Stanwix the day and year above Written
W JOHNSON